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Summation Synaptic Potentials

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2022-01-20

Summation Synaptic Potentials

The psychological and mechanism importance of postsynaptic potential summation is one of the most challenging concepts for students to grasp and understand.

To give a bigger picture let us make you familiar with the three main functional zones of neurons that are mentioned below:

  • The input zone - This zone is activated by ligands (neurotransmitters) that are secreted from presynaptic terminals. The input zone also includes the somatic and dendritic domains. By the activation of this zone, a postsynaptic potential is created.
  • The integrative zone - This zone includes the domain of axon hillock that helps in the summation of postsynaptic potentials. The integrative zone is also responsible for the initiation of action potentials. It is considered as a decision-making point and the trigger zone. Although they are dependent on the voltage-gated ion channels activation.
  • The conductive zone - This zone includes the propagation of the action potential and axon domain.

To understand the main differences between action potentials and postsynaptic potentials is to know the different concentrations and locations of voltage-gated ion and ligand-gated channels.

The condition where the presynaptic neurons and terminals repeatedly fire simultaneously or at a high speed is considered as the summation of postsynaptic potentials.

There are different types of summation based on released energy in the neurons.

Difference Between Temporal Summation V/S Spatial Summation


Temporal summation

Spatial summation

The temporal summation occurs when there is the repetitive firing of a single neuron. Over a period it discharges energy multiple times.

The spatial summation happens when the energy is released after multiple presynaptic neurons for creating the impact of the threshold.

When the transmitted energy gets higher than the value of the threshold, different stages can be seen.

It depends on the movement and the conditions of the neurons.

It is assumed that the higher the level of energy release, the earlier it will cross the highest limits.


Spatial Summation Example

Let's consider two neurons say M and N and they both are incapable individually to match the energy of the threshold. But by combining the energy that is transmitted from both is higher than the threshold energy. That's why it helps in the generation of an action potential.

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Example Of Temporal Summation

For instance, there is only one single neuron say P that can excel the highest neurotransmitter energy for crossing the limits of a threshold.

What Are Synaptic Potentials?

It is related to the signals received by the neurons. They can be classified into two different types and they both are dependent on the postsynaptic receptors. The conditions that make the difference between the two are as follow

The changes in the ions channel conductance of the membranes.

The nature of neurotransmitters that are released in the summation

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Types Of Potentials

Now, let's break down a few details about the types of potentials.

  • Inhibitory postsynaptic potentials

The IPS's are the activators that hyperpolarize the membranes. It also slows down the action potential and the diligence of the occurrence.

GABA scaffolds for gamma-amino butyric acid are very helpful in the inhibition of postsynaptic potentials.

  • Excitatory postsynaptic potentials

EPSP's help in pushing the different potentials near the threshold. As there is a reduction in the energy it triggers the action immediately.

EPSP's are carried out by acetylcholine and glutamate neurotransmitters. The IPSP's are counterbalanced by the EPSP's.

The action potential cannot be lead by a single excitatory or inhibitory potential as they are very tiny. That's why to reach a threshold a group of IPSPs and EPSPs are required.

Summation is the only way through which the potentials can get triggered. It can be done by any type of summation. However, it must be noted that the potential keeps changing and didn't remain constant.

Various factors are considered for knowing the strength of the potentials, some are listed below:

  • The number of released neurotransmitters
  • The strength, physical orientation and composition of the receptors
  • Different changes take place in postsynaptic and presynaptic neurons.

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How To Control The Effects Of Prolonged Synaptic Potential?

The consideration of the Synaptic potential means the regulation of the magnitude that is the decreasing and increasing of the amplitude.

This happens because of the long term potentiation so that the same effect can be created by fewer neurons.

When it comes to inhibitory potentials it is considered as long term depression, which occurs when stimulations take place repeatedly.

The most important use of them is related to the field of learning and memory.

The Concept Of Synaptic Potential Mechanism

This concept is dependent on the theories which are related to the current that passes through a conductor and on potential differences. When the action potential gets triggered then the spine pushes the neurotransmitters from the terminal of presynaptic to postsynaptic.

It starts from a point and soon spreads to the dendrites entire length. Then, it propagates down the axon.

The process of synaptic potential is complex which happens because of the action potential that crosses the membrane of the neuron.

Here are some frequently asked questions by most students out there:

Can Postsynaptic Potential Be Excitatory?

It all depends on the action potential and the nature of the neurotransmitters. However, the postsynaptic can be more.

What Is The Role Of Summation In Neural Pathways?

For adding all the things together, the summation is done and when it comes to the nervous system, the various effects of stimuli are added that are threshold individually. All the stimuli together add up to form an action potential or a response.

The concept is complex enough to understand in one go, so don't worry and seek Australian assignment help to get the best assistance from the subject matter experts. Once your concepts are crisp and clear then nobody can stop you from grasping the concept in zero hours.

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