Have you ever thought about the functioning of electricity? Metal conducts electricity because it has free electrons. Metal bonding is a unique bonding electron that is not bound to the particular atom.
Metallic Bonding: As metallic bonding have a sea of electrons. Hence, we found that metal conducts electricity because it has an ocean of electrons that is free to leave as it gets electric current.
The electron sea model is a good way to understand this concept. Metal pattern is fixed in a repeating manner. Space around this is filled with electrons only which move freely.
Because of electrostatic force, metallic bonding holds it strongly. Every atom is negatively charged as well as a positively charged sea which works like gum which catches the atoms simultaneously.
There are many reasons for shared properties.
Metals are good conductors of electricity: Metal is one of the best conductors as atoms in the metal make a matrix, this is how outer electrons move freely. In Spite of making an orbit of each atom, this is how they make a sea of electrons which cover up the positive nuclei of communicating metal ions. Hence, electrons move throughout the electron sea.
Silver: Silver is one of the best conductors of electricity in the world but it must be in pure form. As silver is the best conductor but at the same time it has some drawbacks like unequal distribution of current that can create high current and the 2nd problem with silver is, it is much costlier rather than other metals like copper and aluminium.
Copper: Copper is the most commonly used metal in the world because of its cheaper value. As a material, it is easily manageable. Copper is used in the electronic industry at a greater scale as compared to other metals. Copper is mainly used as an electric conductor and it is also used in electricity generation. Copper is also used multiple engines like in bus engine, transformer. Copper is most users friendly and cheapest. Most household electric items, copper, are often used. Electromagnetic cores in all the electric material, copper is used to wrap up, for example Radio. Copper is also used in microprocessors. It is used in daily used electric appliances like TV, electric kettle and computers.
Aluminium: Aluminium is also one of the most used metals as electric conductors. But its current carrying capacity is double as compared to copper. That is why many electric product manufacturing companies use aluminium in their products.
Gold: It is also a good conductor of electricity as it is a very precious metal so it is not often used as an electronic item and it is also not used as an electric conductor. Gold has high resistance against corrosion so it is used for high conductivity in some products.
Stainless steel: It is no used as an electrical conductor but there are some grades in stainless steel which are used in electronic industry like type 316 and type 304 both are highly useful metal grades as electrical conductivity.
Most metal items have loose electrons in the outside shell that create free negative charge for the packed positive ion. These electrons are the free electrons that can easily move in the metallic structure.
Materials that have good electric conductivity are known as conductors and all those materials do not have conductivity known as insulators.
There are some electrical conductors used for electric transmission like mercury, steel, sea water, iron, steel, brass, platinum, bronze and graphite, water.
Electrical insulators: Electric insulators are used as barriers to control the electric conductivity, for example rubber coated electric wires. There are some effective insulators used in the electronic industry and in other industries as well.
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