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Attitude and Job Satisfaction

Attitude and Job Satisfaction

 

 

Contents

Introduction. 3

Impact of Attitude & JS on Motivation. 3

Feeling of worth. 3

Optimism.. 3

Commitment 4

Motivational theories. 4

·       Maslow’s hierarchy theory. 4

·       Herzberg motivator hygiene theory. 4

Analysis of these theories. 5

Impact of Attitude & JS on Organizational Behavior 5

Relationships at work. 6

Stress. 6

Work-life balance. 6

Theories of attitude. 6

·       Consistency theory. 6

Balanced theory. 7

Congruity theory. 7

Affective cognitive consistency theory. 7

Cognitive dissonance theory. 7

Analysis of these theories. 7

References. 9

 

 

 

Introduction

The attitude of an employee is directly linked with the job satisfaction level. An employee who is satisfied with the job performs exceptionally well for the organization in comparison to the others who are not. An attitude is a form of a feeling which helps in evaluating a person’s job characteristics. Through research, it was identified that an employee gets promotion based on his or her attitude towards the company rather than the intelligence possessed by them. Employee’s attitude is thus vital for an organization because if an employee has a positive attitude the chances of the company’s success increase in the market. The negative attitude of the person can result in a strike, poor quality of the products, low performance, work slowdowns and so on. A person’s attitude depends on whether he or she is satisfied with the job. It is the attitude of the person which force to work hard for the organization. It also helps in generating the person's wellbeing. An employee’s behavior and their intention to act in a certain way predict whether they are happy working with the organization or not. There are various motivational theories aligned with job satisfaction these include Maslow’s need hierarchy theory, Herzberg motivator hygiene theory, dispositional approach, job characteristic model and so on. On the other hand, there are some attitude theories as well these include functional theory, cognitive consistency theory and social judgement theory and so on. Let’s discuss these theories in detail.  

Impact of Attitude & JS on Motivation

It is very difficult to get a dream job and when the person gets it, it is no more a nightmare for him/her. It is because the employees are found to be emotionally attached to this kind of companies. This is referred to as organizational commitment. There is a high degree of overlap between job satisfaction and organizational commitment. It is noticed that things that make us happy we are more inclined towards them. It is human nature if a person is satisfied with the job he/she will also be committed towards the work. Companies believe that this kind of attitude is worth tracking because it not only increases the performance of the employees but also helps in decreasing the turnover rate. These employees are more motivated in comparison to others. Those employees who have a negative attitude and are dissatisfied with the work are found to be no or less motivated (Ensour, Zeglat, and Shrafat 2018). They do not perform well. However, they perform on a satisfactory level because they have a fear that the organization will fire them if they do not perform well. The employees thus try to gain motivation towards the work and start again with new enthusiasm. Here are some concepts related to these.

Feeling of worth

It is observed that the companies that treat their employees well have motivated employees in comparison to the ones which do not make their employees feel worth. The companies that praise their employees for the work have exceptional performers (Fang et al. 2020). The managers of such organization give others the chance to take responsibilities such as leading a team and so on.

Optimism

There is a natural link between optimistic attitude, job satisfaction and employee motivation. Different people have a different perception to look at the glass of water. Some see it has half full and some as half empty. It is a skill to look at things. Employees who take things positively are satisfied than the ones who do not (Fang et al. 2020).  Leaders of the organization must ensure that all the employees have a positive outlook at things only then the company will succeed in the toughest of the environment.

Commitment

Employees commitment towards the work increase when they are motivated. It decreases when they do not have any motivation to work (Ensour, Zeglat, and Shrafat 2018). The chances of work failure increase in such cases. Thus the organization must always increase the motivations of the employees so that they remain motivated and committed to their work.

Motivational theories 

·Maslow’s hierarchy theory  

Employees motivation is one of the most challenging duties of management. Abraham Maslow's of the hierarchy of need theory states that motivation of a person is a result of a person's fulfilment of five needs which include psychological, social, safety, self-actualization and esteem needs. Psychological needs account for food, shelter, air and water. These are required for survival and an organization can provide these by giving comfortable working conditions, reasonable working hours and so on (Fallatah and Syed 2018). Everyone needs security and this need can be fulfilled by providing safe working condition and secure compensation. The social need can be referred to as a sense of acceptance and belonging. It is important as it helps the person to get out of loneliness and depression. A manager of the organization can provide this need by ensuring that the employees do not feel alone. Everyone in the organization cooperates and encourage each other to achieve common goals. Esteem need can be defined as a need for self-esteem and self-respect. An organization can maintain the self-esteem of the employees by offering them regular praise and appraisal. The other most important need is self-actualization (Soni and Soni 2016). This need can be described as a need to reach one's potential. This need is highly personal but a manager of the organization can help the individual reach to their potential by providing them with a challenging work environment where he or she can work hard and also get involved in the decision making processes.

·Herzberg motivator hygiene theory

It is also known as a two-factor theory because according to this theory an organization has two factors which can help increase the motivation of the employees. These two factors are hygiene and motivators (Alshmemri et al. 2017). Hygiene factors do not help in motivation but if they are not present an employee of the organization can become demotivated. On the other hand, motivators help the employees to work extraordinarily hard. It is observed that leveraging this theory an organization can help it get the most out of the team. It is seen that both factors help increase job satisfaction level. Some of the motivating factors include achievement, advancement, recognition, growth, responsibility and so on. Besides, these, the company must emphasize hygiene factors as well which include work condition, salary, status, relationships, company policies, supervision, status and security. High hygiene and high motivation is an ideal situation for which every manager should thrive for. In high hygiene and low motivation, it is observed that people are there just to collect the salary because they do not enjoy the work they are doing (Chiat and Panatik, 2019). The only reason they are in the organization is the company provides high hygiene facilities. In a condition where both hygiene and motivation is low, the companies turnover rate would increase and this is a very bad situation for the teams. The only way to use this model is to increase job satisfaction level and eliminate all the chances of job hygiene stress. A company can start with hygiene-related issues and slowly it can integrate the entire theory to increase job satisfaction level.

Analysis of these theories

The major difference between Maslow and Herzberg two factor theory is that Maslow is based on human needs and satisfaction whereas two-factor theory is highly based on rewards and recognition. Maslow argued that individual has needs but the manager of the organization must understand which needs of the employee should be fulfilled and at what time. Maslow and Herzberg's theories are linked to one another (Hattie et al. 2020). The hygiene factor of an organization is compatible with the lower needs of the Maslow's hierarchy and upper needs of it are compatible with Herzberg’s motivators. Besides, it can also be said that Maslow's theory is descriptive whereas Herzberg theory is known as prescriptive. There are similarities and differences for both, an organization to improve the performance of employees and increase job satisfaction level must apply the one which suits the organizations most (Hopper 2019).

Impact of Attitude & JS on Organizational Behavior 

Work attitude is strongly linked to organizational behavior. Behavior related to organizational citizenship can be explained as some behavior that is not part of the job but plays an important role in helping new employees working voluntarily and so on. It is observed that employees who are satisfied with their job take leaves very rarely. They stay with the company for a longer period of the time and they do not exhibit aggression at all. It is seen that people who are happy with their work are also happy in their lives. Employees spend maximum hours in the office, thus our satisfaction with the job is a very important part of how stratified the employee feel in general (Kim and Han, 2017). A firm with a satisfied workforce have more positive outcomes like customers of the firm are satisfied, the profitability of the organization and so on. It was identified from the research conducted by society of the human resource department that 80 per cent of the US employees were satisfied with their current job only 20 per cent of them were not happy. This research was conducted putting various factors together such as relationships with management, career development, work environment, compensation and benefits, engagement behaviors, engagement opinions and conditions for engagement.

Work Conversely, employees who are dissatisfied with the work do not behave well with colleagues. They do not corporate with the team members on a project. They remain stressed out and alone. This kind of people does not like the intervention of anybody. It is because they are not satisfied from within and from the job as well. They curse themselves for not able to achieve according to the expectations (Laith, Alaa and Abd, 2019). Their attitude is aggressive and arrogant. The attitude of the employees helps the organization to find out which employees are going to stay with the company and which do not. If there are companywide issues that are experienced by the employees than these must be resolved at the earliest. Many companies take a periodic survey of the employee's attitude. This company includes KFC, Google, Long John Silver's Inc. and so on.

Relationships at work

It is found that there are two important factors of happiness of employee's commitment towards company and relationship with co-workers that are people with whom the employee interacts with, acceptance of the workgroup all play a very important role in happiness. Same goes with the manager if the upper management listens to us then the employees feel good (Shahjehan, Afsar, and Shah, 2019).  Let's take an example of Carlton hotel in San Francisco. The hotel was acquired by a management group. They conducted employee survey and found that employees think that the vacuum cleaner they use needs to be replaced every year and the company to take care of the employees replaced old vacuums cleaner that the housekeeping workers were using. This example created dramatic results for the hotel. Employees started feeling valued, it increased the over performance and productivity.

Stress

The level of stress in work has increased in the past. Various reasons for stress is the ambiguity of the role, organizational politics, conflicts and so on. All of these are related to satisfaction and commitment. An employee who is stressed out seems to be dissatisfied with the job (Saridakis et al. 2020). But we need to flip the side as well. Not every kind of stress is bad. Some stress is helpful like it increases the employee's confidence and increases their level of satisfaction as they take the stress as a perceived challenge and try to achieve it by putting all the efforts. 

Work-life balance

In the 1950's it was found that people used to work for a long period. The families of the employees also admitted at that period that work comes first but the scenario has changed now employees need a balanced life that they pursue their hobby and want to spend more time with their families and children. The work-family conflict is a notion that leads to dissatisfaction. The companies that have policies where employees can work any time are found to be more successful than the companies having fixed working hours (Saridakis et al. 2020). For example – An employee who works in Pharmaceutical where there is no fixed hour will be happier than the one working with other technology with fixed hours.

Theories of attitude

·Consistency theory

According to this theory, people seek consistency in their attitudes and their attitudes and behavior. This indicates that people generally have a divergent attitude but they align their attitude and behavior to make them appear as rational and consistent. In cases where there is inconsistency during that period, all the factors force the person to return to the equilibrium state. It is a state where both attitude and behavior of the individual are consistent. A person can enter the equilibrium state by either altering the behavior or attitude (Xu et al. 2020). This process is known as a rationalization for the discrepancy. The cognitive consistency theories are linked with the inconsistencies in the behavior and attitude which may arise due to bits of knowledge, related beliefs and evaluation of the object.

This theory is divided into four parts. These include balanced theory, congruity theory, affective cognitive consistent theory and cognitive dissonance theory.

Balanced theory

This theory suggests that there are three elements which help in formulating an attitude. These include person, the other person and an interpersonal entity. There can be a sentiment relation or unit relations that may exist (Koriat, and Adiv 2016). For instance, you are working exceptionally well and it is time for your increment. You have decided for yourself that you must receive an increment of 3 lakhs but your manager gives you an increment of 2 lakhs. There are two possibilities in this case either you will accept the offer or you may reject it for it you may even have to leave the organization. Accepting the offer positively is like you have brought a balance in life by bringing your attitude towards your salary to an equilibrium.

Congruity theory

This theory is similar to balanced theory. The only difference is that it focuses on the changes in the evaluation and linked with the concept of either association and dissociation. Congruity occurs in a situation when both the source and the concept represent the same evaluation whereas when a source and concept are negatively associated (Koriat and Adiv, 2016). They show opposite evaluations attached to them. Congruity is said to be a stable state but incongruity is an unstable one. This theory helps the person to tell how much change is required to make the source and linked concept same so that all the incongruity gets resolved.   

Affective cognitive consistency theory

This theory checks the consistency between the overall attitude of the person and object or any issue. This theory is created to understand what happens when an individual has to face a sudden change in the work environment or in the project which he or she is heading (Hattie, Hodis and Kang, 2020). In this theory, the relationship between cognitive and affective components of the attitude gets changes when the attitude of the person is altered.

Cognitive dissonance theory

This theory arises when there is an incompatibility between the two attitudes of the same person or between the attitude and behavior of the person. For example - the job need of the person is different from the personal attitude (Gawronski and Brannon 2019). In such a case, the person needs to change the personal attitude in order to make things compatible with the workplace. This kind of theory is known as cognitive dissonance theory.

Analysis of these theories  

All the above theories help a person to understand how he or she must balance the attitude in positive or negative depending upon the need. It is only the functional theory that force and individual to make efforts in the attitude to make a motivational structure around. It will not only help the individual to improve his attitude towards the work but also help in maintaining the relations with the clients and colleagues in the organization (Xu et al. 2020).

Conclusion

It can be concluded from the above findings that for an employee to have good behavior in the organization he must have a positive attitude toward his work, college and an environment. Only then he will be satisfied with his job otherwise the employee would be in the state of depression as he will take all the things negative. In such situations, the manager must meet some expectations of the employees. There are various types of needs which can be fulfilled by the manager these include hygiene and motivational factors. Motivation is one of the main things that can drive a person towards the satisfaction level. There are various theories for job satisfaction level and motivation. The most useful is employee appreciation and recognition when he or she does a good job for the organization. It would automatically change the behavior of the employee as well as he or she will become satisfied with the job.

 

 

 

References

Alshmemri, M., Shahwan-Akl, L. and Maude, P. 2017. Herzberg’s two-factor theory. Life Science Journal, 14(5), pp.12-16.

Chiat, L.C. and Panatik, S.A., 2019. Perceptions of employee turnover intention by Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene theory: A systematic literature review. Journal of Research in Psychology, 1(2), pp.10-15.

Ensour, W., Zeglat, D. and Shrafat, F., 2018. Impact of job satisfaction on training motivation. Problems and perspectives in management, 16( 3), pp.337-355.

Fallatah, R.H.M. and Syed, J. 2018. A critical review of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. In Employee Motivation in Saudi Arabia (pp. 19-59). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.

Fang, W., Zhang, Y., Mei, J., Chai, X. and Fan, X., 2018. Relationships between optimism, educational environment, career adaptability and career motivation in nursing undergraduates: A cross-sectional study. Nurse education today, 68, pp.33-39.

Gawronski, B. and Brannon, S.M., 2019. What is cognitive consistency, and why does it matter?. Pp 91-116.

Hattie, J., Hodis, F.A. and Kang, S.H., 2020. Theories of motivation: Integration and ways forward. Contemporary Educational Psychology, p.101865. 

Hopper, E., 2019. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Explained. Viitattu, 12, p.2019.

Kim, J.S. and Han, S.H., 2017. Examining the relationship between civil servant perceptions of organizational culture and job attitudes: In the context of the new public management reform in South Korea. Public Organization Review, 17(1), pp.157-175.

Koriat, A. and Adiv, S., 2016. The self-consistency theory of subjective confidence (pp. 127-47). The Oxford handbook of metamemory.

Laith, A.Z.G., Alaa, J.S. and Abd, R.A., 2019. The effect of organizational justice on job satisfaction among secondary school teachers. International Review, (3-4), pp.82-90.

Saridakis, G., Lai, Y., Muñoz Torres, R.I. and Gourlay, S., 2020. Exploring the relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment: an instrumental variable approach. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 31(13), pp.1739-1769.

Shahjehan, A., Afsar, B. and Shah, S.I., 2019. Is organizational commitment-job satisfaction relationship necessary for organizational commitment-citizenship behavior relationships? A Meta-Analytical Necessary Condition Analysis. Economic research-Ekonomska istraživanja, 32(1), pp.2657-2679.

Soni, B. and Soni, R. 2016. July. Enhancing Maslow's hierarchy of needs for effective leadership. In Competition Forum 14 (2) p. 259. American Society for Competitiveness.

Xu, M., Briñol, P., Gretton, J.D., Tormala, Z.L., Rucker, D.D. and Petty, R.E., 2020. Individual Differences in Attitude Consistency Over Time: The Personal Attitude Stability Scale. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, p.0146167220908995.

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