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Developing a model for Supply Chain Management compliance: A case study of Limpopo Department of Education (LDoE)

 

 

 

 

 

Developing a model for Supply Chain Management compliance: A case study of Limpopo Department of Education (LDoE)

 

 

 

                                                ORCID NO. 0000-0002-2158-7328

Research proposal for the Dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Doctor of Philosophy in Public Administration in at the North-West University

 

 

Supervisor:             PROF. D.M Mello

Co-supervisor:        D.R Makamu N.I

 

 

Date of submission:

Version:  1

 

 

Table of contents

1                 introduction……………...……………………………………………..........1

2                  BACKGROUND……………………………………………….…………………………………………........2

3                 PROBLEM STATEMENT……………….……………………………………….3

4                 PARAGRAMATIC PERSPECTIVES……….………………………………....4

4.1                   Meta-theoretic assumptions…………………………………………….............5

4.2                Theoretic assumptions………………………………………………....5

4.3              Methodological assumptions………………………………………….…5

5.                 Research Aims and Objective………………………… ..………….....5

5.1                          Research Aims……………………………………………………………….....5

5.2                         Research Objectives…………………..……………………………………….6

5.3                         Study design……………………….……………………………………............6

6                  Research methodology……………………………….......................7

6.1                   Study Context…………………….…………………………………………......8

6.2                   Population and Sampling……………………………………………………14

6.2.1                Population…………………………………………………………………..………....14

6.2.2                Sampling……………………………………………………………………………….14

6.2.2.1             Sampling technique……………………………………………………………………………..15

6.2.2.2             Sampling Size……………………………………………………………………………………….15

6.2.2.3             Inclusion Critria……………………………………………………………………………………..15

6.2.2.4             Exclusion Criteria…………………………………………………………….15

6.3                        Recriutment of Participants………………………………………………….15

6.4                   Process of obtaining informed consent………………………….……....15

6.5                   Data Collection………………………………………………………….……...15

6.5.1                Data collection tool……………………………………………………………16

6.5.1.1                        Development of data collection tool…………………………………...16

7.                     Rigour / Validity & Reliability…………………………………………….…16

8.                ETHICAL CONSIDERATION………………………………………………….…16

8.1                   Permission and informed Consent……………………………………….16

8.2                   Anormity…………………………………………………………………………16

8.3                        Confidentiality…………………………………………………………………17

9.                   executive summary………………………………………………………….17

bibliography………………………………………………………………………..18

Annexure A: Data collection tool………………………………………..23

annexure B: informed consent……………………………………………..24

Annexure C: recruitment material……………………………………….25

 

 

 

 

List of Tables

Table ‎9?1:          Table title (use insert caption to insert this reference) (CptionTop_Tbl style) 16

 

 

List of Figures

Figure ‎9?1 : Figure title (use insert caption to insert this reference) (CptionTop_Tbl style) 17

 

 

1Introduction

None-compliance to procurement processes and Supply Chain Management (SCM) related legislations and policies as well as tender irregularities forced the government to introduce reforms in the public procurement. This is because public officials stuck their fingers in the public coffers and colluded with the suppliers and this is due to lack of consequence management by government department, The Head of Standing Committee on Public Accounts Mr. Kimi Makwetu stated on audit report for financial year 2018/ 2019 that irregular expenditure increased due to non- consequence management from government department and public entities.

The constitution of South Africa is the supreme law. It provides the legal foundation to set the rights and duties of the citizen and also designs the function of the government. The constitution of South Africa has been amended 17th times till now since Nelson Mandala promulgated it. In terms of section 217 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa when government contracted for goods and service it must do so in a such way that is fair, equitable, transparent, competitive and cost-effective. Failure to regulate public sector Supply Chain Management in many departments affect service delivery negatively. The Auditor-General report financial year 2018/2019 indicates that the Limpopo Department of Education (LDoE) incurred about R98million irregular expenditure since 2010. This irregular expenditure is mostly from the implementing agents such as The Mvula Trust, IDT, DBSA and Department of Public Works and infrastructure for mispresentation of commitments and capitalisation of projects.

 In Limpopo Province Supply Chain Management has become an issue of public responsiveness and has been subjected to reforms, rules regulations. According to  Migosi, Ombuki, Ombuki and Erisa (2013:154), public procurement refers to the acquisition of goods, services and works by procuring using public funds.

The Auditor-General report (2019) further assessed the conflict of interest of employee of Limpopo Department of Education (LDoE) and their close family member’s contacted business with the department. Uncompetitive or unfair procurement process, inadequate contract management and inadequate Supply Chain Management control were exercised.

Some of the challenges in the Limpopo Department of Education (LDoE) Supply Chain Management exercises the non-compliance of SCM procedures and processes, among others including shortage of skills, shortage of capacity in the execution and implementation of SCM.

The concept of Supply Chain Management has different dimensions and therefore different definition of the concepts that focus on different dimension. According to Van Weele (2014:429), define supply chain management as the management of all activities, information, knowledge and functional resources associated with the flow and transformation of goods and services up from raw material suppliers, component suppliers and other suppliers in such a way that the expectations of the end user of the company are met or surpassed.

The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) defines Supply Chain Management as the planning and management of all activities involved in sourcing and procurement conversion and all logistics management activities (Hugos 2018).

The Institute for Supply Chain Management (ISM) defines Supply Chain Management as the design and management of seamless value- added processes across organizational boundaries to meet the real needs of the end customer.

The Association for Operating Management (APICS) defines Supply Chain Management as the design, planning, execution, control and monitoring of supply chain activities with the objectives of creating value, building a competitive infrastructure, leveraging world wild logistics, synchronizing supply with demand and measuring performance globally.

2Background to study

It is well known that public sector Supply Chain Management in South Africa is imperfect. There are constant allegations of corrupt activities and inefficiency. Service delivery protest around the province of Limpopo are sign that communities feels that they are not receiving the quality services they deserve. An efficient and intelligent public sector Supply Chain Management

Model can help to overcome these problem. The organizational structure and systems at the Limpopo Department of Education (LDoE) for Supply Chain Management is not ideal. The education department of Limpopo have inadequate management of procurement and supply chain. Every school has Learner teacher support material (LTSM) budget for providing material to the school. It was found that Limpopo the organizational structure lacked in killed leadership and motivation. Supply Chain Management practitioner frequently do not have the skills, knowledge and experience that they need because they are in access from other directorates and seconded to Supply Chain Management just to fill the vacant posts. The public sector procurement in South Africa is highly regulated. Audit report for financial year 2018/2019 Limpopo Department of Education (LDoE) received a qualified opinion as a results of irregular expenditure due to non- compliance with the Supply Chain Management regulation and processes.

According to Badenhorst-Weis et al. (2017: 390), the public sector procurement is an integral part of Supply Chain Management in the South African public sector. However, despite the employment of SCM as a strategic approach, public procurement in South Africa still faces enormous challenges which include:

  • Lack of proper knowledge, skills and capacity
  • Non- compliance with SCM policy and regulations
  • In adequate planning and linking of demand to the budget
  • Accountability, fraud and corruption
  • In adequate measures for monitoring and evaluation of SCM
  • Un ethical behaviour
  • Too much decentralisation of the procurement systems

3Problem statement

In 2011 five (5) departments in Limpopo Province were under an administration which was in deep financial crisis, these include the Limpopo Provincial Treasury, Education, Roads, and Transport, Public Works and Health and Social Development. Limpopo Department of education procurement was mentioned as one of the weaknesses that contribute impasse and resulted in a negative audit opinion as a result of disregarding the Supply Chain Management policy framework regulating procurement and ethical conduct as a major challenge. Non-compliance with Supply Chain Management processes contributed to the irregular expenditure of R 957 086 000 in financial years 2018/2019 and resulted in a qualified opinion.

Enforcing compliance in Supply Chain Management rules and regulations and standards in the Limpopo Department of Education is critical to ensure that departmental objectives for the attainment of the clean audit opinion, to improve departmental performance. An efficient and intelligent public sector Supply Chain Management system can help to overcome this problem. Identifying and implementing innovative ways to improve employees’ skills and knowledge. The departmental structure within the Supply Chain Management takes place is not ideal, with inexperienced under-skilled officials, high staff turnover and lack of motivation.

Elements of Supply Chain Management not fully implemented such as Supply Chain performance. Limpopo Department of Education structure lacks the Supply Chain performance that which monitoring processes undertaking to analyse, to determine whether the proper Supply Chain Management processes have been followed and with the desired departmental objective were achieved.

The study will contribute to the improvement of Supply Chain Management compliance with policies and regulations to ensure sufficient planning and the linking of demand to the budget, strengthening monitoring and evaluation of Supply Chain Management performance. The problem is that evidence exists in the Limpopo Department of Education that there is Supply Chain Management collusion which results in none compliance with policies and regulations, fraudulent action and corruption. The study aims to investigate the existing policy to ensure adherence to the requirement to have transparent SCM.

Problem statement- Non-compliance of rules and regulations for the supply chain management processes is resulting in fraudulent action and corruption.

4Paradigmatic perspective

Paradigmatic perspective is an important part as it helps in seeing the research from a specific paradigm or from a point of view on paradigms. The terms used in this section includes meta-theoretic assumptions, theoretic assumptions and methodological assumptions. These assumptions state a society works only when there something impacts upon it be it a value base that has implicit and explicit implications or something else.

4.1    Meta-theoretic assumptions

Meta-theoretic assumptions make people aware of the problems that are experienced by the society. Meta-theoretic framework influence knowledge and how it can be useful.  According to Smith (2015:3), each meta-theory is ideological in nature, in that it shapes the goals, expectations and actions of those who use it. Similarly, each approach articulates a value base that is often only implicit, but that has explicit implications for society and humanity.

4.2    Theoretic assumptions

Tur (2016:3), indicate that the response to the theoretical question also stems from previous answers. If social impacts are seen in a mechanistic fashion, no powerful theoretical structure is needed. The assumption is that the community 'functions' until something 'impacts' upon it

4.3    Methodological assumptions

According to Tur (2016:3), the methodological question probes the way in which the study is organized. The bottom-up, participative approach will be used. Also it investigates which data gathering and analysis techniques are to be applied. The methodological response is also dependent on the previous responses. A positivist answer to the question will bring with it the use of more quantitative methods, with an expert-based approach, while a constructivist answer will involve the use of more qualitative and participatory techniques.

5Research aim and objectives

Research aims and objectives are explained below as follows:

5.1    Research aim

The main aim of the study is:

To identify why supply chain department of Education is not complying rules and how to improve the condition of the unit.

5.2    Research objectives

The objectives of the study are the following:

  • To identify the issues experienced in Supply chain management.
  • To evaluate the existing policies and procedures so as to find the reason for noncompliance.
  • To find effective solution for supply chain management issue.
  • To monitor the process of supply chain management.
  • To come up with guidelines to improve performance in Supply Chain Management
  • To determine the factors that will ensure compliance in SCM.
  • To provide proper recommendation to solve the issue.  

 

Research questions of the study are:-

  1. Why employees of the department finding it hard to comply the policies and procedures.
  2. What is the main issue experienced in the supply chain management?
  3. How supply chain management issue can be combatted?

4)  Why this issue is important for the organization?

5.3    Study design

Qualitative research paradigm will be used in the study. Creswell (2013:44) describe the qualitative research approach as a method that can be used to better understand what department contribute to either a social or a human problem. This descriptive type of

research will utilise secondary information to pursue the study. The study focuses attention on the qualitative research approach. Qualitative research is investigative, and

seeks answers to a question. Qualitative research begins with assumptions and the use

of interpretative/theoretical frameworks that inform the study of research problems addressing the meaning individuals or groups ascribe to social or human problems.

Creswell (2013:44−45) posits that the researcher will collect data through examining

documents and gather multiple sources of data. Rather than rely on a single data

source, the researcher will employ inductive and deductive data analysis, observation,

emergent design, reflexivity, and a holistic approach to the study. It can be done by collecting the data and organizing them into categories or themes.

 

Qualitative research systematically uses a predefined set of procedures to answer the

question, collects evidence, and produces findings that have not been determined in

advance. It produces findings that are applicable beyond the immediate boundaries of

the study. Qualitative research is preferred in data collection strategies as it provides

complex textual descriptions of how people experience a given research issue (Creswell, 2014:185–186).

 

According to Lewis, Saunders and Thornhill (2009:116), states that “Interpretivism advocates that it is necessary for the researcher to understand the differences between humans in our role as social actor. This emphasizes the difference between conducting research among people rather objects such as trucks and computers”.

An interpretivism approach is therefore carried out to obtain information of how the Limpopo Department of Agriculture is affected by the challenges of Supply Chain Management. The study will be focusing on one department, the Limpopo Department of Education. This can be seen as a limitation of study. The research is order to overcome limitation would also try to gather data of other departments in Limpopo like department of public works, department of social development and so on. The data required for the research will be requested from the Departmental policies, procedure manual, Auditor General ‘s report and financial policies as well as through interview and semi structured interview. McMillan and Schumacher (2009:156) say research design refers to a plan for the selection of the subjects, researcher decides on the processes of data collection procedures to answer the research question.

This research adopted qualitative research approach. A qualitative study refers to research which produces description data, generally people own written or spoken words (Brynard, Hanekom and Brynard 2014). This enables the researcher to interpret and describe the action of people through a variety of methods that are relevant to the design. The qualitative research refers to the meanings, concepts, definitions, characteristics, metaphors, symbols and description of things. Qualitative research strategies provide perspectives that can prompt real of these common or half, forgotten insight sound and smell. The purpose of this research is to discover answers to questions through the application of systematic procedure. Qualitative research properly seeks answers by examining various social settings and the groups or individuals who inhabit these settings. Research project is literally the plan for how the study will be conducted. It is a matter of thinking about imagining and visualising how the research study will be conducted.

On the other hand, a qualitative study is generally geared towards documentary subject’s attributes expressed inequality extend or strength as well as generating objectives accuracy validity and reability The reason for this is to measure variables and to produce figures which will allow judgement as to the status of the variables in question, which in turn allows further processing and comparison and permits reliability. Structured questions are used as a qualitative data collection tool to social primary qualitative research.

6Research methodology

According to Mazibuko, the methodology explains the research question and its rationale. It also explains the starting point and the directions of the research. The methodology is the general research strategy that outlines the way in which research is undertaken. Methods, in contrast, refer to the specific means by which data collected and analysed. The study adopted a “case study and triangulation” research design methodology. This section will propose the research design, the method of research to be used, the target population of the study, the sampling technique and sample size, the data collection strategy and the data analysis procedure. (Mazibuko 2018: 18-19)

 

Qualitative evaluation approaches involve the use of predominantly qualitative research methods to describe and evaluate the performance of programmes in their settings, focusing on the processes of implementation rather than of outcomes (Mouton 2001:161)

 

Guided by the above mentioned background the methodological choices of this study will be based on the descriptive nature of the current literature on the factors of non-compliance of SCM. In using the qualitative method attempt will be made to understand the individual experience from the subjective views SCM policies.

6.1.1   FUNCTIONING OF SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGENT

According Badenhorst-Weis, et al. (2017: 390), proper and successful SCM rest upon certain core principles of behavior. Section 217 of the constitution of the Republic of South Africa 1996 stated that when an organ of state in the national, Provincial or Local sphere of government or any other institution identified in the National legislation, contract for goods or service it must do so in accordance with the system that is fair, equitable, transparent, competitive and cost-effective.

FIVE PILLARS OF PROCUREMENT

1. 

VALUE-FOR-MONEY

2. 

OPEN AND

EFFECTIVE

 COMPETITION

 

3. 

ETHICS AND

FAIR DEALING

 

4.

ACCOUNTABILITY

AND

REPORTING

 

5.

EQUITY

Source: The 5 pillars of procurement and supply chain management

 

The Accounting Officer of the the Limpopo Department of Education should develop, implement and maintain an effective and efficient supply chain management system which addresses the following:

 

 

Table 1. Supply Chain Model in the Limpopo Department of Education

 

 

Source: National Treasury: Supply Chain Management: A guide to Accounting Officer.

 

A brief explanation of the components of this Model are as follows:

6.1.1.1 DEMAND MANAGEMENT

Demand Management is the first stage of SCM. Demand management contribute by achieving the commitment of the departmental planning where goods, works or services are delivered to the right place in the quality with the right quantity at the right cost and the right time and from the right source. The objective is to ensure that resources required to fulfill the needs identified in the strategic plan of the department are delivered (National Treasury RSA 2004).

6.1.1.2.  ACQUISITION MANAGEMENT

 

Acquisition management is the second phase of SCM and the Accounting Officer ensure that the supply chain management system of the department provides for an effective and efficient system of acquisition management in order to ensure that goods, works and services are procured in accordance with authorized process, the threshold, values for the different range of procurement processes as determined by the National Treasury are complied with bids documentation and general condition with all applicable legislation and expenditure on goods and, works or service are provided for In the approved budget of the department (National Treasury RSA 2004: 1-198).

 

6.1.1.3 LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT

Accounting Officer should develop and implement an efficient and effective system of logistics management. According Badenhorst-Weis et al (2017:372), argues that logistics is the process of strategically managing acquisition movement and storage of material (inventory) through the organization and its marketing channel in such a way that profitability is maximized through cost effective fulfillment of orders.

 

6.1.1.4  DISPOSAL MANAGEMENT

Disposal management is the process when the department is dispose unserviceable, redundant or obsolete movable asset. It is the responsibility of Accounting Officer to appoint specific committee to deal with disposal (National Treasury RSA 2004: 1-198).

6.1.1.5 RISK MANAGEMENT

SCM risk management entails management deciding what acceptable level of risk as are by objectively assessing the factors that may prevent a particular activity from meeting its objective. The purpose of risk management is to ensure that department manages supply chain management risk effectively and efficiently (National Treasury RSA 2004: 1-198).

 

Badenhorst-Weis, et at (2017:373) define risk as unintended or unexpected outcome of decision or action. Risk management is the provision of an effective system for the identification, consideration and avoidance of potential risk.

6.1.1.6 SUPPLY CHAIN PERFORMANCE

 

In Supply Chain performance, monitoring process takes place undertaking retrospective analysis to determine whether the proper process is being followed and whether the deserved objective is achieved. National treasury has developed a reporting template that is used by provincial treasury to monitor SCM implementation, process and performance of the relevant department (National Treasury RSA 2004: 1-198).

6.1.1.7   LAYOUT OF THE STUDY

Chapter 1: Introduction

This chapter will comprehensively introduce the problem to the study and will also provide a clear rational and purpose undertaking this study.

 

Chapter 2: Literature Review

 

This chapter will be extensive summarizes the most common definitions in the field of Supply chain management, model of Supply chain management. The legislative requirements warrant each department to create supply chain management unit and implementation thereof. Compliance with the SCM includes operating in line with the principles.

 

Chapter 3: Research design and Methodology

 

The focus of this chapter will be on the design and methods used to identify the critical factor that causes non-compliance of SCM in Limpopo Department of Education. The data collected through primary method will be analyzed using statistical tools. Since the data which we are collecting is n qualitative form therefore a thematic analysis would be done by organizing the collected data in the form of themes.

 

Chapter 4 Data interpretation and analysis

 

The result will be obtained from analyzing the collected data as well as the limitations encountered during interviews conducted will be presented and reported in this chapter. Outline current situation against the financial policies and regulation of SCM in the Limpopo Department of Education

 

Chapter 5 Recommendation and conclusion

 

This chapter will present the recommendations and the proposal for further research. The chapter will provide the readers with evidence of what is achieved. The findings will be in line with the objectives and focusing on the research questions. The recommendation will follow the conclusion of the study.

 

6.2.   Population and sampling

A population is a group of potential participants to whom you want to generalise the results of a study. A sample is a subset of that population (Van Zyl 2018:95).

6.1.1Population

The population of this study is the officials working in the Limpopo Department of Education including ten (10) Educational Districts within the department. Zitha et al. (2018:680), define population as the total collection elements about which study wishes to make some interference.

6.1.2Sampling

Sample is the subset of the whole population which is actually investigated by a researcher and whose characteristics will be generalised to the entire population (Zitha et al. 2018:680).

6.1.2.1Sampling technique

The sampling technique in this study involved both purposive and random stratified sampling. The respondent will be purposefully selected from the Supply Chain Management units that are responsible for procurement function.

6.1.2.2Sampling size

The stratified random sampling will be done on 50 people of the supply chain unit administered through questionnaire. It will be directed to officials selected from Supply Chain Management focusing on Admin Officers, Assistant Directors and Deputy Directors, executive workers and so on.

6.1.2.3Inclusion criteria

Since stratified random sampling is used therefore senior management and the middle management of the Limpopo Department of Education who are working on the Supply Chain Management will be asked to fill questionnaire on supply chain management. These are selected on the basis of position and work in the organization.

6.1.2.4Exclusion criteria

Stratified random sampling involves the division of a population in small groups. These groups are known as strata. The group that is excluded in this sampling is based on the position in the unit. Juniors are new to the unit thus they are excluded from the sampling criteria. The junior management comprise junior officials of the Limpopo Department of Education who are working on the Supply Chain Management.

6.3    Recruitment of participants

Participants will be recruited through purposive sampling from Supply Chain Management

6.4    Process of obtaining informed consent

The informed consent form or letter is one of the tool to be used to ensure ethical behaviour that is people will be made aware about the research methods before so that if they are not willing to answer the questionnaire they will not be forced for it.

6.5    Data collection

Data collection will be collected from published records such as media references, newspapers, reports of previous research on non-compliance in Supply Chain Management, public procurement, Auditor General’s report SCM policies and regulations, and other government documents. Qualitative data will be sourced out from these resources as the research study is based on qualitative data instead of quantitative one. For example, legislation relevant to public sector procurement, codes and policies, annual reports, audit reports, books, publications, previous research conducted in the field of procurement practices, magazines, manuals, web-based Internet as a research tool, and journal articles.

6.5.1 Data collection tool

For the purpose of this research data will be collected through semi- structured interview and structured questionnaire. The research study will thus be based on mixed method.  Most of researchers in Public Administration probably use interviews as data collection instruments due to its flexibility to allow the researcher to explain the question to the respondents if they cannot clearly understand (Brynard et al. 2014:42). A structured questionnaire will be used for the purpose of this research in order to produce standardised instruction on how to complete the question and explain what is expected of respondent (Brynard et al. 2014:48)

6.5.1.1 Development of data collection tool

Interview is an effective method of collecting information for certain types of research and, as noted earlier in this chapter, for addressing certain types of assumptions. Particularly when investigators are interested in understanding the perceptions of participants or learning how participants come to attach certain meanings

to phenomena or events, interviewing provides a useful means of access. However, interviewing is only one of a number of ways researchers can obtain answers to questions. The determination of which type of data-gathering technique to use is necessarily linked to the type of research question being studied and the kind of data that you need to answer it. One of the more significant design decisions that a researcher faces when planning an interview project is to ensure that the questions to be asked are well suited for that form of data collection. (Howard et al. 2017: 70)

7Rigour / Validity & reliability

Validity refers to the results of a test not the test itself. Validity is all about the test or instrument the researcher are using actually measures what researcher want to measure. Reliability occurs when the test measures the same thing more than once and result in the same outcomes. Reliability consist of both an observed score and a true score component (Van Zyl 2018: 115-123). To maintain reliability and validity of the research appropriate methods, research design will be taken. The quality of the methods and measurements will not be compromised. A standardised questionnaire will be developed based on theories and compliances of supply chain management. Each and every step of the research be it data collection or analysis will be planned carefully. The data collected will be protected from external influence so that it may not create any variations in the result.

8Ethical considerations

The officials who serving as participants in this research will be treated with dignity and maintenance of privacy will be maintained. Full consent of the participants must be taken prior to the study whether they are free to fill the questionnaire or not. The research paper that is going to be generated will be free from plagiarism. Ethical clearance will be taken from the university to conduct the research. The committee if provide the certificate after looking at the aim and methodologies then only research would be conducted. The research design will be created ethically sound and must anticipate the result.

8.1    Permission and informed consent

Permission to conduct research will be requested from the Limpopo Department of Education and informed consent form be issued to the participant to read and signed by each participants which clearly indicate the purpose of the study.

8.2    Anonymity

Anonymity means that records cannot liked with names and confidentiality is maintained. It is a strict form of the privacy in comparison to confidentiality. It is because in the research the identity of the participants is hidden from the research team. It is thus more difficult to achieve because participants in the context of the social research are known to the program coordinator.

8.3    Confidentiality

Confidentiality is maintained about the participants and data be kept in a controlled situation. The best way to minimise the number of people who see or handle the data. It means that the identifying information of the research participants is with the program coordinator. It also means that the identifying information is excluded from reports and documents. Generally, the report is created with the peer group thus it is the responsibility of the researchers to ensure that the report is worded properly without disclosing the identity of the participants.

9Executive Summary

 

 

Table 9?1:      Table 1. Supply Chain Model in the Limpopo Department of Education

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Table Body font

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Annexure A: Data collection tool

A questionnaire (as presented in annexure A) was developed for the Limpopo department of Education. It is recommended that questions should be structured in a simple and easy way for respondent to understand as the researcher would normally not be around to explain or assist in completing the questions (Kumar, 2014).

annexure B: informed consent (TOC_HEADING sTYLE)

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Annexure C: recruitment material (TOC_HEADING sTYLE)

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