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climate change

climate change

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Question 1

  1. Climate Change

Climate Change refers to the change in the pattern of weather, and associated variations in ice sheets, land surfaces, oceans, that are occurring over past numerous decades. It is the outcome of anthropogenic GHG (greenhouse gases) emissions from resource depletion and production procedures that concurrently impacts the efficiency of nation and also human living circumstances. Moreover, it is the pattern of variation affecting local climatic circumstances, as measured by changes in such aspects as normal temperature and rainfall, or a modification in frequency of thrilling weather condition. The main facets of climate change are reduction of the ozone layer, global warming, natural resource depletion, and more. It is true to say that global warming is most appealing aspect in climate change that refers to tangible increase in global temperature causing the atmosphere to be hot. The effects of global warming can be seen in the form of disastrous storms; frequent fierce tornados; sea-level rise; hurricanes; and more.

Climate Change Issues and its policy implications on developing countries

Developing countries are also known as LDC (less developed countries) where there are low standards of living, low HDI, and undeveloped industries as compared to others. There is doubt to say that developing countries are bearing the burden of the costs of climate change in uneven units. These are more susceptible to climate change than developed nations due to their low ability to adapt and their uneven reliance on natural resources for welfare. They are the most impacted by climate change and the least capable to afford its concerns. Further, their helplessness is due to numerous factors that restrict their capability to avoid and react to the influences of climate change. Moreover, climate change has that much strength to converse noteworthy development gains made in the developing countries. The main reason for developing counties to be largely impacted with climate change is that these nations depend more heavily on the climate sensitive sectors like tourism, forestry, and agriculture.

There are numerous reasons that shows that climate change adversely affect the poor people who mainly reside in regions of Asia, and Africa. It can be evident from the fact that the cities like Mumbai and Kolkata in south Asia are facing increased flooding situations, intense cyclones, and the warming temperature each year. Further, African cities like Nigeria are facing droughts and shifts in rainfall that leads to issue of good security. It is a fact that increased variability stemmed from global warming leads to create poverty in the countries as droughts and floods lessen the income level of individuals and finishes their properties. Furthermore, the climate change also affects the health of poor people as they reduce their resistance to diseases like malaria, diarrhea, and cholera.

The adverse impacts of climate change can be mitigated via collaboration of both international and national matters. It is due to the fact that numerous environmental issues resist national boundaries to affect entire geographical area of the international economic and political systems. Due to this, it put burden on developed countries and it results in fewer resources in the form of assistance and economic development moneys flowed to developing nations. All these issues facing the developing countries in respect of climate change forces the implementation of certain measures of global arrangements and agreements. Furthermore, the major issue among numerous on the schedule of developing nations and in the treatises on climate change, is the shortage of capacity of the global framework for handling environment issues to impose its various contracts due chiefly to an capacity to extract obedience, mainly from industrial nations. It can also be said that developing nations have less capability in terms of technology and science and thereby less ability in respect of finance and logistics to remove the adverse effects of global warming. However, the developing nations are required to be the part of solution by cutting GHS emissions (greenhouse gases) at the expense of their economic development.

Taking into consideration all the issues, there is an urgent need for developing countries to implement plans and policies that will react to their domestic needs first before serving to international system. Additionally, the policies must be implemented in such a manner that they are people-driven, people-centered, and people-friendly. Furthermore, they should engage in activities responsible for mitigating the emission of GHGs in cost-effective and innovative manner to enhance the financial flow and scale up emissions reductions. UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on climate change) suggested two methods to address the issues of climate change. It can be done via mitigation of climate change by minimizing greenhouse gas emissions and augmenting basins. Additionally, it can also be done via adaptation to the impacts of climate change. As far as mitigation is concerned, it entails all human actions aimed at minimizing the emissions or augmenting sinks of greenhouse gases like methane, CO2, and nitrous oxide. It is to be suggested to developing countries that the activities that can result in mitigation of GHG emission are construction of novel buildings; focusing on electricity generation and Greenfield projects; urban development; sustainable forest development; solid waste management; low-carbon technologies; financing instruments; and more.

There is Kyoto protocol that could help in reducing the onset of rise in temperatures by declining GHG emissions.  This was the policy signed in 1997 in japan and entered into force in year 2005. It is the most far-reaching environmental contract ever adopted or implemented in respect of climate change for the developing countries. Under this protocol, there are three aspects JI (joint implementation), CDM (clean development mechanism), and carbon trading.

  1. Role of forests

There is no doubt to say that forest plays an essential in not just creating balance in the environment but also in the entire system of planet earth. They are generally fundamental life forms and offer for the endurance of the globe’s biodiversity that sis essential for economic development, variety of life forms, human living, and ecological adaptive reactions. Furthermore, they are essentially vital as they calm down climate, control the water cycle, and offer habitation to millions of life forms. Moreover, forests contribute to sustain ecological equilibrium as it provides an environment for different animals and plants. They assist in cleaning environment, preserves micro-climate, and and more. Moreover, they assist to prevent soil erosion and decay of plants replaces the soil with nutrients. They also preserve a suitable balance of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the atmosphere. It is true to say that forests are more than trees and are essential for food security and improved livings.

There are four dimensions of food security named as access, stability, utilization, and availability. Forests are closely associated with these dimensions of food security via provision of income, nutritious foods, ecosystem services, and employment. Availability dimension means the forests are responsible for providing livestock fodder, ecosystem services, and wild foods. Further, livestock are the source of meat and dairy items, and animals could be used for increasing the productivity of farming activities. Access means the forests provide a source of income like via selling fuel wood, or non-wood products. Moreover, utilization means forests offer wool fuel for food preparation and disinfecting water, micronutrient, and herbal medicines and hence they form part of utilization of food security. Further, stability means that during the times of crop failure or any seasonal shortages, the wild foods and incomes from forests offer a safety net. Also, the forest ecosystem services to agriculture declines the probability of agricultural losses from extreme weather events like floods, and droughts resulted in landslides and soil erosion.

As an approx., there are almost 820 million individuals who go hungry each day all over the globe. Therefore, as per the growing population to exceed to 9 bn by 2040, there must be expansion of worldwide agricultural output by 60 % to fulfill the food need of individuals globally. Still, in numerous regions, deforestation caused by mounting demand for nutrition, fiber, and firewood is humiliating ecosystems, lessening water obtainability, and limiting the gathering of fuel wood that further leads to reduce food security mainly for poor people. Natural forests are critical for the existence of forest inhabitants like indigenous individuals, and they assist transport clean water to farming lands by shielding catchments. Agroforestry, trees, and forests all contribute to food security and nutrition in numerous manner, however; such contributions are generally poorly redirected in national expansion and food security strategies. Food security is the essential problem faced by the entire globe today. Regardless of considerable increase in production of food in numerous nations, there are still 800 million individuals who are suffering from malnutrition.

The factors that hinder the forest contribution towards food security are unequal distribution of forest benefits & gender bias; weak governance; absence of concrete guidance and knowledge on how to best handle forests to increase food security and nutrition outcomes; unclear & insecure legal tenure rights; and inadequate services for forest-dwellers.

  • Inadequate delivery of benefits of forest and gender partiality: It is true that gender-differentiated activities in respect of production of food, its provision, and cash requirements are based on the diverse needs, priorities, and concerns of men and women. It can be said that women have less tendency to commercialize the forest products than the men; therefore, the trade of its products can be a vital source of income for females who are lagging in terms of opportunities for creating cash income mainly accessible to men.
  • Lack of real direction and knowledge on how to best handle forests to increase food security and nutrition consequences: There is no doubt to say that there is availability of wide variety of resource materials that separately addresses sustainable forest management practices and enhance the food security as all levels including national, global, and regional. However, there is shortage of particular directions and knowledge on how to apply those sustainable practices in forest management with obvious nutrition goals, and food safety.
  • Pathetic governance: This is one of the reasons in regards of deforestation and the food insecurity. It is further due to the weakening of intersectoral linkages that the policies in sectors like mining, energy, industrial development, and agriculture may have a great influence on forests. Furthermore, the other reasons of weak governance can be seen in the form of inadequate usage of land, resource planning, and reviewing; insufficient engagement of native individuals and external stakeholders in decisions; incomplete legal and regulatory frameworks; less capacity to enforce policies for forest; insufficient investment in research and education. There is lack of coordination between the sectors like agriculture and forests that could pose undesirable influence on food security and forest management. It is true that agriculture is the sole biggest driver of deforestation, yet land-usage choices leading to transformation of forests to agriculture mainly fall under ministry and authorities other than forestry. Furthermore, the food-security policies comes under ministry of agriculture, and rightly inspires the growth of agriculture into forest lands with less obligation of role of forest in offering food security. The policies regarding nutrition are mainly under ministry of health that has less synchronization with forestry ministry.
  • Uncertain and doubtful lawful tenure rights: The governments also fail to identify outdated and normal tenure provisions under which native individuals have utilized and handle forests for decades. There are numerous parts of globe where mainly the indigenous individuals are neglected from the decision making procedures that define the usage of forests and lands. Due to this, the local people when not having access to forest resources and its land do not get benefit in terms of compensation. Additionally, various conservation initiatives and secures forest areas neglect the native people completely and prohibit the living activities for them as well.
  • Insufficient facilities for forest-dwellers: The forest-dwellers and various farmers find it hard to get the technology, finances, information, access to market, and other things they require to enhance their land management and create fruitful establishments in order to attain food security and sufficient nutritional goals. Furthermore, the native organizations also lack the ability to assist them and control of forests, and the marketing of products and ecosystem service by farmers. Also, there are fewer opportunities for smallholders and other native individuals to take part in decision-making for programs and policies.

Question 3

New media refers to the digital media that are cooperating, integrate two-way communication, and involve certain form of computing. New media comprises of the online news outlets, blogs, and social media, and it has numerous implications for community including politics. It is true that it has drastically changed the way of entire political system like communication manner of political leaders; operations of governmental establishments, methods of contesting elections, and involvement of citizens. New political media are the methods of communication that enable the creation, distribution, and interchange of political content on platforms and in systems that accommodate communication and teamwork.

It is true that political communication is an essential trend and each democratic nation has its own methods of communication available for their leaders to interact with constituency and citizens. Social media or new media has changed the way of communicating with each other. Political leaders are trying to attain a place in the cyber world to influence and engage with the electorates. Moreover, these leaders are getting closer to the masses with novel and social media. The main features of new media are in the form of dialogue, variability, digital information, and customization. Also, there is usage of words, sounds, videos, and images that is differing it from other media.

There is no doubt that the political media system has become complicated with the advent of new media. The previous legacy media entails mass media institutes that antedate the internet like radio shows, newspapers, and other television programs. This legacy media concur with novel media that are the extension of technological novelty. The new media that entail digital applications, video-sharing platforms, websites, and more, are constantly growing in imaginative manner while the legacy media preserve comparatively steady arrangements. Furthermore, novel media can communicate information directly to people without any interference of editorial porters that are inherent to legacy system. Therefore, it can be said that this has lead to an enhanced level of variability and randomness into the political communication procedures. Also, the legacy media has assimilated novel media into their journalism strategies. They disseminate material across a selection of traditional as well as contemporary communication platforms.

Furthermore, they depend on novel media sources to fulfill the progressively rising demand for content. Consequently, novel media depend on their inheritance equivalents to attain legality and propagate their content. Novel media serve vital roles in a democratic society and their chief goal is to notify the public, offering people with the information required to make sympathetic choices about management and strategy. It is also true that media acts as regulator checking government activities and they fix schedule for public negotiations of issues, and offer a medium for political communication. Additionally, they enable communal building by assisting individuals to determine mutual causes, recognize public groups, and work for solving social glitches.

Apart from these, new media, via its dissemination of diverse content, builds numerous prospects for more voices to get heard. It provides extraordinary access to information, and can reach even to fair-minded audience members via Facebook, peer-to-peer medium, tailored channels, and more. However, the diversity of available content by novel media may poses complexities also.

The new media has its substantial impact on the contestation of elections. With the constant advancements in technology and the rise of social media platforms, the election media setting has become more expanded, uneven, and focused. The candidates have incorporated new media into their digital media strategies for updating, communicating and assembling voters. Furthermore, the campaigns have also settled advanced micro targeting method like the usage of focuses text messages to approach specific ethnic groups and issue voters. Moreover, their websites have become social media hubs that can involve constituencies during and after the elections. Their approach to voters remains using and after elections via usage of frequent emails and text messages to voters that has strengthened parties’ democratic role (Owen, 2017).

Political divisions are reflected in the presence of media “echo chambers,” where people select their news and information sources based on their affinity for the politics of other users. Modern-day new media echo chambers began to form during the first phase of new media, as conservative talk radio hosts, like Rush Limbaugh, attracted dedicated followers. Social media has hastened the development of echo chambers, as they facilitate people’s exposure to information shared by like-minded individuals in their personal digital networks, with 62% of adult Americans getting their news from social media platforms. Even politically disinterested social media users frequently encounter news articles unintentionally as they scan their feed. The ability of social media to isolate people from exposure to those with differing viewpoints exacerbates political polarization.

New media have both expanded and undercut the traditional roles of the press in a democratic society. On the positive side, they have vastly increased the potential for political information to reach even the most disinterested citizens. They enable the creation of digital public squares where opinions can be openly shared. They have created new avenues for engagement that allow the public to connect in new ways with government, and to contribute to the flow of political information.

At the same time, the coalescence of the rise of new media and post-truth society has made for a precarious situation that subverts their beneficial aspects. Presently, it appears as if there are few effective checks on the rising tide of false information. Substituting scandal coverage for serious investigative journalism has weakened the press’ watchdog role. The ambiguous position of the media as a mouthpiece for politicians renders journalists complicit in the proliferation of bad information and faulty facts. It is important to recognize that American journalism has never experienced a “golden age” where facts always prevailed and responsible reporting was absolute. However, the current era may mark a new low for the democratic imperative of a free press.


















Owen, D. (2017). New media and political campaigns. In The Oxford handbook of political communication.

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