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Crisis Management_T2_19

Crisis Management_T2_19

Crisis Management_T2_19 You are logged in as Gleefa Farrier (Log out) Reset user tour on this page Home Data retention summary Switch to the standard theme Previous Group Discussions Next External Links What information do you require?                               [250 words] Who would you inform? In what order? And Why?        [250 words] What are your next steps?                                         [250 words] What are the risks to the consumer?                           [250 words] How would you assess the risks?                                [500 words] What risk management action should be taken?           [500 words] [2,000 words total] Assignment 2 (WRIT2) DATE EXTENDED BY 2 WEEKS IN LINE WITH UNIVERSITY 

Crisis Management




What information do you require?

 As per the case study, the major issue that the company faced is the positive result of microbiological sampling done on chilled RTE Cooked Meat products. The company claims that the product shelf life is between 10-15 days with 6 days remaining. To understand in-depth knowledge of Listeria spp, certain information is required such as microbiological standard, different products test and listeria factsheet (Moreno-Gonzalo et al., 2017). As per the microbiological standard, the company is required to control the concentration of certain micro-components such as pseudomonas, listeria spp and Enterobacteriaceae.






1*10 4

1*10 3

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listeria spp




Table1: Microbiological standard

 As data presented in Table 1 clearly showed that a proper standard measure is required to increase the overall quality of food. Besides, different tests on products are performed to determine the concentration of microbiological components such as Escherichia coli, Aerobic plate count and staphylococcus aureus. For instance, the total Enterobacteriaceae in butter roast sliced Turkey; a finished product, which is around 60 CFU/g. Similarly, the total Enterobacteriaceae in the chicken breast; raw material is 8000 CFU/g. These data have been obtained by taking 2kg of raw material and 80g of the finished product. However, the importance of quality food can be determined by analysing the current situation of the UK related to Listeria monocytogenes. The chances of Listeria to grow at refrigeration temperature is high (Bolocan et al., 2017.). Thus, chilled food must be kept cold at 5 degree Celsius. Also, it can cause life-threatening foodborne illness, which is vulnerable to the above 60 age group.

Who would you inform? In what order? And Why? What are your next steps?

After reviewing the report of Food Lab, the quality manager of meat in the organisation is firstly informed to determine the loopholes in the manufacturing process. It is suggested to establish a firm framework and guidelines while preparing and preserving meat vividly. The primary reason to implement a strict policy is to minimise the adverse effect of potential risks and threats. Listeria monocytogenes is vulnerable for pregnant women and people with weakened immunity. Implementation of necessary policies and regulations are necessary to prevent the severe effect of listeria, especially with weakened immune systems.

Once informing the quality manager, the manufacturing design of the company needs to exercise Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP). It includes a high standard of personal hygiene, premises hygiene, effective equipment cleaning and ingredients from reputable suppliers. Apart from this, a proper course of action is required to be adopted for the process, verification, validation as well as monitoring to measure pH and temperature (Heir et al., 2018). However, The Regulation says that RTE foods must not exceed the limit of 100cfu/g for L. Besides, a practical approach is required to implement to understand shelf-life evaluation, which does not require pathogen. Similarly, other factors are needed to be considered such as type of packaging, salt content and concentration of preservatives. it is identified that the storage conditions and production process are similar.

What are your next steps?

 The company claims that the shelf life of finished products (Butter roast sliced Turkey) is 10- 15 days. However, the lab report explicitly said that Listeria spp is found in the product, which is produced 4 days ago and 6 days remaining. Thus, it is necessary to change the manufacturing process and commence new food production facilities. Some of the measures have been highlighted, which the company requires to be prioritised are as follow:

  •  Requirements for the safe manufacture of RTE food
  • Reputed sources are adopted for purchasing ingredients, storage instructions and obeying usage
  • Environmental microbiological monitoring programme needs to be taken into consideration to monitor the controls of raw materials so that risks from ingredients can be minimised (Scatassa et al., 2017).
  • HACCP plan is required to implement any changes such as product characteristics, supplier equipment and raw materials.
  •  Besides, historical data are also considered such as environmental monitoring that may influence the quality of products with comparable intrinsic characteristics.

The above measures are needed to be considered on top priority to minimise the potential risks related to RTE ingredients. Before consumption of Chilled meat, it is needed to ensure food made for consumption within 5 days of preparation (Ortega et al. 2019). Apart from this, the quality manager needs to monitor that the food has been prepared under at least 70 degree Celsius. A proper guideline for preparation and preservation of food needed to be strictly followed so that consumers can easily consume the products without any hesitation.


What are the risks to the consumer?

Listeriosis can cause a severe impact on the consumers and may later become life-threatening to them. It is caused by the germ "Listeria monocytogenes” and considered as a serious infection. This disease is highly vulnerable to adults, older and pregnant women. It has majorly affected the people who have weak immune systems. It is usually a mild illness for pregnant women but severe for newborn babies. Listeria infection majorly influences the sites in the chest, joints, other parts of the body and abdomen (Taheri et al., 2017.). On a wider scale, it explicitly says that consumers above 65 years are highly vulnerable as it develops infections of bloodstream and brain.

 Therefore, consumers need to take all preventive measures and actions so that several risks can be minimised as far as possible. The several impacts on people can be segmented into two categories; pregnant women and people other than pregnant women are as follow:

Pregnant women: Certain impacts of listeria on pregnant women is just a mild fever. However, it results in miscarriage, premature delivery, life-threatening to new-born baby and stillbirth. Whereas, its symptoms are quite similar to flu such as muscle aches and fatigue (GELDA et al., 2020). Therefore, preventive measures are needed to be considered to minimise the severe impact on business.

People other than pregnant women: Apart from pregnant women, consumers who have weak immune systems are equally vulnerable. Its symptoms include confusion, loss of balance, stiff neck and convulsions. The symptoms of listeria show within the span of 1 to 4 weeks after eating food contaminated.


How would you assess the risks?

Guidelines to assess the risk

Health protection agency (HPA) is an organisation who examined the food products from the ports and local to reduce the cases of infection caused, due to the eating of ready to eat food products. The HPA has maintained a numerous amount of data by examining the samples of food products which are submitted for monitoring.  These data are submitted and made known in the sets of guidelines. The amendment has a great effect on focusing the public health and consumer protection.

The microbiological criteria for inspection should only be used when it could be found effective. Because microbiological inspection alone could not assure the safety of food products. All the food industries in the world are having a responsibility to reduce the bacteria to a minimum level so that they cannot harm the public health and the official controllers are there for the audit and inspection (Liu et al. 2017). The local and port authorities have duties to check the safety of food that is imported at the point of check-in. The amended guidelines should be applied to these inspections.

The food examiner uses the above guidelines and the appointed authorities identify the situation that requires the inspection of the public health and food safety. Different kinds of samples are examined in this type of inspection such as food samples found at the time of inspection, food samples submitted after the complaints, food samples submitted at the outcomes of diseases, food samples used to determine the amount of microbiological contains. All these food samples are mostly single samples and are not attached to any official sampling plans (Ghaed et al., 2017). And, when the microbiological inspection takes place within these guidelines the food samples are fixed along with its intrinsic and external factors like temperature, packaging and gas contamination  Should be considered for the selecting the microbiological process.

Some of the rules and regulations that came into force for the microbiological criteria for food inspection. European Commission EC NO. 2073/2005 regulatory for microbiological criteria which started from January 2006. The second regulation which accounts for hygiene maintenance is EC No. 178/2002 which started in February 2002. These regulations are applied to the food-based organisation which are responsible for the production and managing the food.


The food safety can also be appreciated by identifying the presence of pathogens in the food. On the other hand, not all pathogens are equally responsible for food safety to all ready to eat food products. Some of the pathogenic bacteria are unavoidable for the risk of health and are not needed to be found in the food products.

Campylobacter (thermotolerant)

This is the most common bacteria found in the UK responsible for the gastrointestinal infection. This disease is communicable and the disease caused by the food infection is difficult to identify. The main cause of communicating the disease remains unidentified (Upadhyay et al., 2016).

What risk management action should be taken?

There are several methods and legislation to be followed in any food-based organization. To avoid risk management. European Commission regulation EC No. 2073/2005 acts on the microbiological criteria for food products. One of the major objectives of the EC No. 178/2002 is to provide safety for the public health acted from January 2002. Amending the several laws in the general principles and requirements of food law.

The ready to eat meat foods should not contain any microorganisms as their toxins present in the numerous quantities will affect the risk of public health. EC No 178/2002 amended several laws which suggest not to put unsafe food products. The microbiological inspection criteria help the acceptance of foodstuffs, their production process and their handlings. Several limits are put on the microbiological criteria bases that if the foodstuff comes within that limit will be accepted or more than that will represent the larger number of microorganisms present on it. As a result of several protections of public health. Hygiene plays an important role in keeping food safe for eating.

EC No. 882/2004 is for the animal's feed and their health. As the foods are being processed, they are a feeder to the animals and their health will show whether the food is to be processed further or not. The SCVPH raised an issue to evaluate the microbiological criteria for foodstuffs of non-vegetarian origins for the consumption of humans (Campillo-Navarro et al., 2017). This will be based on the relevance of assessing the microbiological criteria on the formal risk and globally authorized principles. The SCVPH  developed new policies for the Listeria bacteria. This policy concentrate on the amount of listeria presents on food products. The SCVPH also developed opinion for the pathogenic bacteria such as vibrio vulnificus. However, it does not set any criteria based on values found. But the codes are generated to develop good hygiene. Sampling in the process of food production can be a better option to determine and avoid the presence of pathogenic bacteria. These are some legislation that needs to follow for risk management. There are some home remedies also for risk management such as wash and boil properly the ready to eat meat foodstuffs. Do not rush into the gathering of fish market or meat shops, always try to buy it from the hygienic place (Ribet et al., 2017). Try to read out the date of manufacturing before buying the foodstuffs and their number of days up to which it can be eatable. Nowadays some of the foods available in the market are ready to eat not even need of cooking, especially for those food items read the labels on it before consuming them. However, there is a rule for labelling also in the food products from the European council 2000/13/EC. Also minimizing the high-risk food can help the individuals.



Reference list

Bologna, A.S., Pennone, V., O'Connor, P.M., Coffey, A., Nicolau, A.I., McAuliffe, O. and Jordan, K., 2017. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes biofilms by bacteriocin?producing bacteria isolated from the mushroom substrate. Journal of applied microbiology122(1), pp.279-293.

Campillo-Navarro, M., Leyva-Paredes, K., Donis-Maturano, L., González-Jiménez, M., Paredes-Vivas, Y., Cerbulo-Vázquez, A., Serafín-López, J., García-Pérez, B., Ullrich, S.E., Flores-Romo, L. and Pérez-Tapia, S.M., 2017. Listeria monocytogenes induces mast cell extracellular traps. Immunobiology222(2), pp.432-439.

GELDA, K.S., Parreira, V.R., LaPointe, G. and Farber, J.M., 2020. Examination of the culturable microbiota from low-moisture foods imported into Canada for antibacterial activity against Listeria monocytogenes. Journal of Food Protection83(4), pp.686-691.

Ghaedi, H., Ayoub, M., Sufian, S., Hailegiorgis, S.M., Krishnan, S. and Khan, S.N., 2017. Toxicity of potassium carbonate and phosphonium-based deep eutectic solvents towards Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes bacteria. J. Environ. Anal. Toxicol7(2161), p.0525.

Heir, E., Møretrø, T., Simensen, A. and Langsrud, S., 2018. Listeria monocytogenes strains show large variations in competitive growth in mixed culture biofilms and suspensions with bacteria from food processing environments. International journal of food microbiology275, pp.46-55.

Liu, F., Du, L., Zhao, T., Zhao, P. and Doyle, M.P., 2017. Effects of phenylacetic acid as sanitizing agent for inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes biofilms. Food Control78, pp.72-78.

Moreno-Gonzalo, O., Ramírez-Huesca, M., Blas-Rus, N., Cibrián, D., Saiz, M.L., Jorge, I., Camafeita, E., Vázquez, J. and Sánchez-Madrid, F., 2017. HDAC6 controls innate immune and autophagy responses to TLR-mediated signalling by the intracellular bacteria Listeria monocytogenes. PLoS pathogens13(12), p.e1006799.

Ortega, F.E., Koslover, E.F. and Theriot, J.A., 2019. Listeria monocytogenes cell-to-cell spread in epithelia is heterogeneous and dominated by rare pioneer bacteria. eLife8, p.e40032.

Ribet, D., Lallemand-Breitenbach, V., Ferhi, O., Nahori, M.A., Varet, H. and Cossart, P., 2017. Promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) controls Listeria monocytogenes infection. MBio8(1), pp.e02179-16.

Scatassa, M.L., Gaglio, R., Cardamone, C., Macaluso, G., Arcuri, L., Todaro, M. and Mancuso, I., 2017. Anti-Listeria activity of lactic acid bacteria in two traditional Sicilian cheeses. Italian journal of food safety6(1).

Taheri, M., Mortazavi, S.M.J., Moradi, M., Mansouri, S., Hatam, G.R. and Nouri, F., 2017. Evaluation of the effect of radiofrequency radiation emitted from Wi-Fi router and mobile phone simulator on the antibacterial susceptibility of pathogenic bacteria Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli. Dose-Response15(1), p.1559325816688527.

Upadhyay, A., Upadhyaya, I., Mooyottu, S. and Venkitanarayanan, K., 2016. Eugenol in combination with lactic acid bacteria attenuates Listeria monocytogenes virulence in vitro and invertebrate model Galleria mellonella. Journal of medical microbiology65(6), pp.443-455.

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