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An interpreter is useful to enhance communication and promote practical advice that can benefit individuals and organizations. Globalization promotes a multicultural society with diverse languages and a need for richness. It raises a need for clear communication that works between different cultural needs and encounters the individualized healthcare facilities (Silverman, 2015). Effective communication helps in maintaining the holistic healthcare needs and ensures accurate translation of the messages. Through an interpreter, effective communication is possible to maintain high-quality information and meet the needs of the profession. An opportunity for safe and efficient healthcare opportunities, the interpreter provides better knowledge and service delivery to ensure the improvement of communication (INT, 2016). Three different kinds of interpretation techniques are sight translation, consecutive interpretation and simultaneous interpretation. Communication is an essential element to exchange thoughts and opinions to other individuals. Language is considered as an identity that makes the individuals as positive and make them feel confident. Through the transmission of cultural values and beliefs, the individuals can have identified themselves as valuable and share the essential information. An interpreter plays an important role to maintain effective communication among two languages through specific knowledge and skills (Drugan, 2017).
The following elements provide an understanding of the required areas for an interpreter. Effective working in the industry requires the presentation of interpreting skills and knowledge. Specific knowledge, skills and qualifications are necessary for an individual to work as an interpreter and fulfil the job requirements. An understanding of the necessary elements as interpreting requirements helps to maintain the effective practices and fulfil the role of an interpreter (INT, 2016). Elements of the interpreting requirements can be discussed below:
It is an essential requirement for the interpreter to maintain the specific level of qualification and experience that can help in enhancing the interpreting practices. A Diploma/ Degree/ Masterâ€™s Degree in Public Sector Interpreting is necessary before working as an interpreter (Queensland Government, n.d.). It helps the individual to maintain specific knowledge and skills and shows an in-depth knowledge of the languages. Specific certification promotes the fulfilment of basic needs of the organizations to rely upon an individual. Accreditations in the interpreting represent as high-standardized knowledge to maintain a professional level in the workplace. To achieve the intended result, qualifications and specified certifications reflect the ability of an individual to promote reliable and valid proves of the competency. A professional translator requires a valid certification before performing the task that reflects the competency and capabilities of an individual to work as a qualified interpreter. Language competency is the major aim of the interpreting services while validity can be enhanced through an effective certification. A minimum level of proficiency of the interpreter can be tested through certification that meets the interpretation requirements (INT, 2016).
An interpreter needs have essential knowledge of different languages including grammar, vocabulary, idioms. Knowledge regarding specific historical, cultural and political areas of the specific language helps to maintain an effective connection with the clients and maintain interactive responses. Language competency, transfer competency, ethical competency, intercultural competency and thematic competency are requirements listed for an interpreter. Improvements in communication are possible through effective understanding of political and cultural knowledge that reflects the content-specific knowledge. Ethical consideration enhances the professional practices that are followed by intercultural competency and thematic competency. Problem-solving behavior and attention towards the parties engage the interpreter to understand the information as presented in the messages (Queensland Government, n.d.). Consideration of the individual competencies help to understand the second language and promotes the following knowledge:
1. Language competency: It enables the transfer of language proficiency through vocabulary knowledge, idiomatic knowledge and grammar knowledge. Understanding of grammatical structures, syntax and style of the language differs from an institutional setting. Through the use of language and appropriate words, the interpreter can manage the communication and comprehend through written, signed or spoken language (INT, 2016; OSCE, n.d.).
2. Intercultural competency: It is focused on the culturally specific information used by an interpreter to use the targeted language and support the clients. Sociolinguistic knowledge, cultural knowledge, political knowledge and historical knowledge are based on the target language whereas it varies with class, education level, gender, institutional role, age and ethnic backgrounds of the individual. An interpreter does not represent any specific culture but shows a familiarity in different cultures with culture-specific knowledge (Queensland Government, n.d.).
3. Technological competency: Knowledge of an interpreter for technology, communication media and use of information and communication technology (ICT) in interpretation services help the individuals to balance their work and information with adequate technology use. Telephone interpreting, conference equipment, video interpretation and audio equipment used for interpretation represents the technological abilities of an individual to work in the organization. With the concept of globalization, technological competency is required for interpreters integrating with ICT tools (Queensland Government, n.d.).
4. Thematic competency: It is based on the specific knowledge and understanding of the needs in the assignment. Appropriate phraseology and terminology help to interpret the situation and maintain communication. It is based on subject-based knowledge, general knowledge, institution-specific knowledge and current events-based knowledge. It aims at the professional competencies of an interpreter that shows mandatory requirements (INT, 2016).
5. Thematic competency: It is based on the specific knowledge and understanding of the needs in the assignment. Appropriate phraseology and terminology help to interpret the situation and maintain communication. It is based on subject-based knowledge, general knowledge, institution-specific knowledge and current events-based knowledge. It aims at the professional competencies of an interpreter that shows mandatory requirements (INT, 2016).
Table 1: Three elements necessary as interpreting requirements
Interpreters are necessary to maintain language proficiency skills that promote the use of knowledge and helps to develop a professional attitude. Sociolinguistic skills are effective that promotes intercultural competencies and maintains the knowledge bank. Rhetorical and memory skills help in transferring knowledge and maintain ethical consideration (OSCE, n.d.). Major skills required in an interpreter are interpersonal skills, communication skills and self-assessment skills to maintain individual knowledge and fulfil the needs of the organization. Through relevant knowledge, individual capabilities increase that enhance collaborative skills (Queensland Government, n.d.). Active listening and respect for the individual messages require absolute translation rather than any biased judgment in the interpretation. An interpreter requires to be an active listener than translates every sentence with accurate information. Effective cognitive and motor skills promote the use of language and encourage clear communication. Awareness of the culture is necessary to maintain effectiveness and show respect to the clients. Self-control and emotional resilience represent the most suitable interpreter that works with significant knowledge and skills with the defined qualification (INT, 2016).
b. Two possible factors that can impact interpreting effectiveness
Interpreting effectiveness can be identified through ethical consideration and individual competency of an interpreter. Through ethical consideration, a professional attitude is maintained by the interpreter that promotes the fulfilment of codes of practice. Interpreters maintain a formal attitude towards the clients to manage ethical aspects of practice and lead to fulfilling social responsibility. Professional clients who depend on interpreters seek for higher work experience that represents their knowledge and attitude in the interpretation and focuses on ethical practices to deliver the most suitable services. Interpreters are required in health and social care focuses on the training and qualifications of the interpreters to analyze their professional development. Through professional codes of conduct, interpreters engage the clients to understand others and fulfil the needs of the professional contract. An increasing need for interpreters is occurring with the globalization and multicultural practices. Health care sector mainly focuses on the interpreters for understanding the patients or other individuals who belong to a distinguished cultural identity (INT, 2016).
The systematic approach of an interpreter focuses on effects that can be enhanced by measuring different aspects. To reduce uncertainties in the interpreting situation, it is necessary to maintain professional ethics and focus on technological competency. Increasing need of interpretation leads to unethical practices which can impact the clients. Source language must be used by the interpreter to maintain effective interpretation and work slowly with several pauses to make others understandable for the information. Increased familiarity in the vocal style and quality of communication brings positive outcomes and enhance interpersonal skills (Queensland Government, n.d.).
The following is a table that reflects upon the factors that affect interpreting effectiveness to maintain valid and reliable results through gained information. Two major factors that impact the effectiveness of interpretation are:
Table 2: Factors impacting interpreting effectiveness
Professional ethics are considered as most relevant in interpreting effectiveness. Through a systematic and effective understanding of the information, required interpretation can be encouraged. It requires confidentiality to maintain the needs of the profession. It is possible that the interpreter can understand some confidential information, but the interpreter must not share this information with others or record it for misuse (Drugan, 2017). Some major professional ethics essential for interpreting effectiveness are as follows:
Confidentiality: To enhance the interpreting effectiveness, an interpreter must maintain the confidentiality of the information which has been translated. The professional attitude must maintain the privacy of the information and does not disclose any information.
Privacy: An interpreter focuses on the privacy of the information to follow the socially acceptable rules. The information is simply translated by the interpreter to provide accurate and honest meaning to the required client rather than sharing it with others.
Respect: It is essential to maintain respect and integrity in the profession to attain effective outcomes. The interpreting effectiveness can be identified through mutual respect and understanding (Queensland Government, n.d.).
Honesty: Honest translation of the facts and information enhances the interpreting outcomes and fulfils the job responsibility. Wrong information can impact the purpose of the interpretation and also impact the clientâ€™s needs.
Equality: The interpreter must treat all the clients as equal and maintain loyalty through effective interpretation. Both the parties should be considered as equal to maintain honest outcomes and help them to understand each other.
Professional attitude: A professional attitude impacts interpreting effectiveness through professional standards and codes of ethics. An interpreter needs to maintain a positive attitude to provide accurate and reliable information rather than considering own opinion into the discussion.
Responsible: The interpreter is responsible for providing necessary information to the clients. Accountability for cultural respect and understanding maintain responsible outcomes.
Professional competence: Interpreting effectiveness is based on the professional competences such as language competency, intercultural competency, ethical competency and thematic competency.
Thus, it can be said that interpreting effectiveness is based on professional ethics that impact the behaviour and knowledge of the interpreter. Through professional standards and attitude, the interpreter can work effectively that can benefit from personal development (Queensland Government, n.d.).
Technological competency stands for the technology-based knowledge and skills of the interpreter that works through communication media. Use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) provides a better opportunity for the interpreters to manage their services and use hardware, software and internet for the services. Globalization has raised a need for technological competency to work from different locations and enhance professional goals. It impacts the effectiveness of interpreting through the necessary knowledge and skills. Various ICT skills are necessary for the interpreters to deliver their services that can benefit the individual whereas, through inefficiency in technology-based services, the outcomes can be identified as dissatisfactory. The interpreter needs to maintain knowledge for the updated communication technologies that can enhance the outcomes of interpreting and promote satisfactory results (Queensland Government, n.d.).
1. What is the most probable purpose of this interpreting assignment?
b. to participate in a pre-caesarean interview
2. From your perspective, which type of interpreting mode is likely to be adopted in this interpreting assignment?
a. Face to face interpreting
3. Who will possibly be involved in this interpreting assignment?
c. a Vietnamese speaker, a Doctor and you
4. When will this assignment be conducted?
b. February 13th 2017
5. What is the duration of this assignment booking?
a. less than 60 minutes
6. What kind of dress code may be required in this interpreting event?
b. Formal dress
6. What kind of dress code may be required in this interpreting event?
An ideal seating arrangement for a three-person interview is a triangular arrangement (PÃ¶chhacker, 2016). To conduct an effective interpreting session, the following arrangement is considered as efficient based on the needs and purpose of the interpreting. The on-site interpreter can be used for the given situation that helps to arrange the interview effectively (Sun, 2015).
1. It is necessary to identify the purpose of the interview with the interpreter that can help in managing a short-brief. Through a defined purpose the translation can become relevant that can enhance the outcomes of the interview (Northern Territory Government, 2020; Queensland Government, 2020).
2. The interpreter can specify the candidate regarding the technical and jargon terms which can be explained in the interviewerâ€™s language that can provide relevant understanding.
3. Different terms in the English language have distinguished meanings which can create confusion and it makes difficult for the interpreter as some terms of English are not equivalent to international language (Northern Territory Government, 2020; PÃ¶chhacker, 2016; Queensland Government, 2020).>
4. Through the briefing of the subject matter, the interpreter can ask relevant questions and provide translation appropriately even in complex terms.
5. Through a specified style of communication, interpretation technique can be analyzed by the interpreter (Northern Territory Government, 2020; PÃ¶chhacker, 2016; Queensland Government, 2020).
1. In the beginning, the interpreter can introduce the interviewer to the candidate and role of the interviewer and interpreter in the interview.
2. The assumptions for bias towards the decisions can impact the interview thus it is necessary to provide a clear understanding regarding the role of interpreter to translate the information not to make advice or judgments (Northern Territory Government, 2020; Queensland Government, 2020)
3. A strict code of conduct needs to be followed by the interpreter to involve under a confidentiality clause. The interpreter cannot discuss any of the information outside the meeting. These codes of practices are needed to be reassured by the interpreter to maintain privacy and confidentiality.
4. The interviewer will remain to be the in charge of the interview and all the decisions of selection or rejection need to be taken by the interviewer, not by the interpreter (Northern Territory Government, 2020; PÃ¶chhacker, 2016; Queensland Government, 2020).
The triangular seating arrangement is identified as most effective for a three-person meeting. It plays an important role in the interpreting process and helps to make others as comfortable. Effective communication can be maintained through the triangular seating arrangement and makes the client feel as important and valuable (Northern Territory Government, 2020; Queensland Government, 2020).
Figure 1: Triangular seating arrangement
It is necessary to following the given points during the interview to maintain effective interpretation and fulfil the defined objective.
Clear communication is necessary to maintain effective interpreting outcomes. Short sentences are preferably used for clear and effective communication.
At one time only one individual must speak to promote a better understanding (Northern Territory Government, 2020; Queensland Government, 2020).
Sufficient time must be provided to the client for the answer and also to the interpreter to interpret the responses and make sufficient clarification.
It is necessary to provide a permit to the interpreter to ask the client for better clarification or repeat the message for better understanding (Northern Territory Government, 2020; PÃ¶chhacker, 2016; Queensland Government, 2020).
The client needs to speak directly to the interviewer and the interviewer with the client, not to the interpreter. The facial expressions of the client and interviewer needs are in front of each other that can maintain appropriate eye contact and consider an effective communication technique.
It is not appropriate for the interviewer to chat with the interpreter as it can discourage the client.
The interviewer and client need to be present in the same room so that the interpreter can easily work for both of the parties and help them to understand the messages (Northern Territory Government, 2020; PÃ¶chhacker, 2016; Queensland Government, 2020).
It is not appropriate to ask any personal question from the interpreter or their opinion as it is not as per the job requirements of the interpreter.
Clarification of messages from both ways is necessary and provide unbiased information that can benefit the client (Northern Territory Government, 2020; Queensland Government, 2020).
After the client has left, the interviewer can discuss the stressful situations which can be improved further.
A telephone interpreter can also be used by the interviewer to manage the effective interpretation services. Different steps of managing the telephone interpreter are as follows:
In the beginning, the interviewer can call on the interpreter and provide an introduction with the specific reason for the call and attaining services.
The purpose of the interview can be shared by the interviewer to maintain conference call facility using the technological devices (Northern Territory Government, 2020; PÃ¶chhacker, 2016; Queensland Government, 2020).
At the time of the interview, the interviewer needs to join the client and the interpreter that can help to fulfil the objective of the interpretation. Following instructions can be followed by the interpreter and interviewer for the effective interview:
A shirt brief for the discussion and purpose of the interview is provided to the client, including the role of the interviewer and interpreter.
Clear instructions can be provided by the interviewer to the interpreter for the questions and if any special requirement is necessary.
The interviewer can speak directly to the client and allow the interpreter to interpret the messages once the interviewer or client completes the sentence (Northern Territory Government, 2020; PÃ¶chhacker, 2016; Queensland Government, 2020).
Clear language is necessary for the interview wherein the interviewer and interpreter can provide necessary responses which can easily be translated by the interpreter.
Short sentences are effectively used by the interpreter to maintain an effective conversation.
It is necessary to pause for a few seconds after every 2 or 3 sentences to allow the interpreter to speak and translate similar information.
The interviewer needs to provide specific allowances to the interpreter for using the telephones for interpreting and managing technology-based services.
End of the session needs to be specified by the interviewer to the interpreter to manage suitable measures (Northern Territory Government, 2020; PÃ¶chhacker, 2016; Queensland Government, 2020).
After the client has left, the interviewer can discuss the stressful situations which can be improved further (Northern Territory Government, 2020; Queensland Government, 2020).
Thus, the role of an interpreter is necessary for interpreting and maintain professional standards to enhance the objective of the session and attain opportunity for further sessions. For the face to a face interview session with the interpreter, client and interviewer, the triangular arrangement is effective to maintain effective communication and provide useful feedback to the interpreter as necessary. Telephonic interpretation is based on the communication media which can work through the specified instructions of the interviewer and managing effective outcomes (Northern Territory Government, 2020).
Drugan, J. (2017). Ethics and social responsibility in practice: interpreters and translators engaging with and beyond the professions, 23 (2), 126-142.
INT (2016). NAATI interpreter certification: knowledge, skills and attributes. Retrieved from: https://www.naati.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2020/01/Interpreter-KSA-Paper.pdf
Northern Territory Government (2020). Interpreting process. Retrieved from: https://nt.gov.au/community/interpreting-and-translating-services/interpreting-and-translating-service-nt/interpreting-process
OSCE (n.d.). Working with or as an interpreter. Retrieved from: https://www.health.qld.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0033/155994/guidelines_int.pdf
PÃ¶chhacker, F. (2016). Introducing interpreting studies. New York: Routledge.
Queensland Government (2020). Useful tips on how to conduct the interpreting session. Retrieved from: https://www.health.qld.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0023/153761/interp-tips.pdf
Queensland Government (n.d.). Working with interpreters. Retrieved from: https://www.health.qld.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0033/155994/guidelines_int.pdf
Silverman, D. (2015). Interpreting qualitative data. US: Sage.
Sun, R. (2015). Interpreting psychological notions: A dual-process computational theory. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 4(3), 191-196.
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