# The Lennard-Jones Potential Curve for Carbon fiber and Copper Fiber

## The Lennard-Jones Potential Curve for Carbon fiber and Copper Fiber

Task 1

1. Carbon fibres are considered as a material for composite part in a wind turbine structure.
1. Calculate the theoretical strength of the carbon fibres by assuming a carbon-carbon bond length of 0.15 nm, a material surface free energy of 50 mJ/m2 and an elastic modulus of 1 TPa.                                                                                             [5 Marks]

Carbon – Carbon bond distance:-0.15nm

Material Surface Energy:- U = 50Mj/m^2

Elastic Modulus: - E = 1 Tpa

b) Sketch a Lennard-Jones curve for the carbon-carbon bonds in the carbon fiber and show a comparable Lennard-Jones curve for copper fibers where the strength and elastic

Modulus of the copper is lower than for carbon. Clearly indicate the differences between

the two materials. [9 Marks]

## Surface treatment and sizing

In this process the reinforcing of the carbon fibers can be enhance. This process is start with pulling the fibers in to the electrolyte bath. In this process the chemical is react with surface of fiber and rough surface. This can increase the surface area of filament for interfacial fiber. In the next stage, the coating is applying on the whole surface of the fiber. Which is 0.5 to 5 % weight of fiber. When the sizing dries, the long process is complete.

(b) The composite uses the carbon fibres with 50% in a 45° and 50% in a -45° orientation to improve

fatigue resistance. An epoxy with an elastic modulus of 1 GPa and a low-grade carbon fibre with an

elastic modulus of 200 GPa are used in the composite.

1 .State the krenchel equation that can be used to to predict the elastic modulus of the composite.

= proportion of total fibre content

? = angle of fibers

= composite efficiency factor (Krenchel)

2. Calculate Orientation Factor For Composite.

Efficiency factor

Layup = (+45/-45)

η = Cos4θ

= Cos4 45°

η = 0.25

Laminate in X-direction

= (1× 0.25)

= 0.25

Laminate in Y-direction

= (1× 0.25)

= 0.25

3.(ili) Calculate the resultant elastic modulus of the composite assuming the length efficiency

factor is 0.8. [4 Marks]

Ef = 200 GPa

Em= 1 GPa

Vf = 0.8

Ex = (0.25 × 200×0.8) + (1×0.2)

Ex = 40 + 0.2 = 40.2 GPa

Ey = (0.25 × 200×0.8) + (1×0.2)

Ey = 40 + 0.2 = 40.2 GPa

4. Suggest how the resultant composite elastic modulus would vary compared to your answer

in (iii) for fibre orientation approaching Voigt and Reuss conditions.

[6 Marks]

Ec= 4.9 Gpa

Voigt analysis is used for the linear analysis. There is no orientation effect on the results. But the Krenchel allow us to do the calculation using orientation of the ply.

Task 2

The simply supported beam in Fig. T2 carries two concentrated loads.

(a) Derive the expressions for the shear force and the bending moment for each segment of the beam.

(b) Sketch the shear force and bending moment diagrams.

Now,

S.F. Calculations –

S.F. at A ( Just LHS ) = 0.0

-- S.F. at A ( Just RHS ) = + 18 kN

-- S.F. at B ( Just LHS ) = +  18 kN

-- S.F. at B ( Just RHS ) = + 18.0 – 14  = 4 KN

-- S.F. at C ( Just LHS ) = +4 KN

-- S.F. at C ( Just RHS ) = + 4 – 28.0 = - 24 KN

-- S.F. at D ( Just LHS ) = -24 KN

-- S.F. at D ( Just RHS ) = -24 + 24 = 0.0 KN S.F.D. will be as shown in fig.

B.M. Calculation –

-- B.M. at A = 0.0 KN-m.

-- B.M. at B = + ( 18 x 2 ) = + 36 kN-m.

-- B.M. at C = + ( 18 x 5 ) – ( 14 x 3 ) = +  48 kN-m.

-- B.M. at D = 0.0 kN- m. The B.M.D. will be as shown in fig.

 18 KN V KN

 +

 04 KN

 A

 _

 B

 24 KN

 48 KN.m

 M   KN.m

 36 KN.m

 +

 D

 A

 C

 B

Task 3

The main components of the artificial hip are the femoral stem that is fitted into the bone, the ball attached to the stem and the acetabular cup that is fixed into the pelvis. The property constrains on the materials to be used for these elements are very strict because of chemical and mechanical complexity of the hip joint.

(a) What are the main material requirements for hip implants? Briefly justify each point. [10 Marks]

< >High biocompatibility:-Nonmagnetic:-The material should be non-Magnetic. In the many time of the life human can come in interaction with the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). If a person done the transplant before. And this transplant is magnetic, then this situation can create the problem .Because of MRI the transplant gets heated and may change its position, so the material should be nonmagnetic.The surface femoral stem should be bioactive in terms of osteointegration :- It is a important that when transplant has done ,the living bone should accept the transplant and make a strong bond. So the material has to be osteointegration in nature Adequate mechanical :-  The material has to good mechanical properties like high young modulus. Good yield strength, The material should be optimum amount of ductile. The tensile strength should be good enough. Very low toughness value. The material has high hardness so that the wear and tear should be low. The fatigue strength is good.The surface of the layer has high modulus of elasticity. The structure  can be a porous structure.The layer of the implant or free surface does not have surface defects like scratches ,cracks, or any other defect.The surface morphology of the implant should be fine. If the surface  is expose to the load then  it is very fine .Or if it is for stem then the rough surface can be used.The implant should be chemically stable. There is not defect at the microscopic level like interstitial defect of point defect.The implant should have high quality but it should not be deal with the price. The price should be economical.Materials selection of femoral stem componentMaterials selection of femoral head and acetabular cup componentsMetal-on-metalCeramic-on-ceramic

(a) The effective (von Mises) stress for this implant. [11 Marks]

Mohr Circle

 σx

 σ2=-

 σ1

 τ

Material compressive yielding Strength = 30 MPa ,The Tresca stress is 20.4 Mpa so Material Safe in compressive yielding.

b) The factor of safety against yield. [3 Marks]

The Factor of safety can be found by yielding compressive strength of material to Tresca stress.

F.O.S =

## Students Speak About Our The Lennard-Jones Potential Curve for Carbon fiber and Copper Fiber

Oscar Saunders
STUDENT

I tried using many assignment writers from various affiliations, yet all of them were temperamental and they acted outlandishly. Numerous expert associations deluded me by passing on copied content. I was extremely stressed about who will do my assignment on psychology given by my teacher with several guidelines. And when I have encountered my assignment question I realized tha..

David
STUDENT

I viewed assignments as a reason for stress rather than a shortcut to earn top grades until I started seeking The Student Helpline to do my assignment. From the first encounter with these professionals, I experienced confidence and relief- things I never get usually when assigned to a topic. Just like it is mentioned on the website, they possess qualified write..

### FAQ

##### 1What Makes You Better than Other Student Assigment Writing Services?

Many desktop publishing packages and web page editors now use Lorem Ipsum as their default model text, and a search for 'lorem ipsum' will uncover many web sites still in their infancy. Various versions have evolved over the years, sometimes by accident, sometimes on purpose (injected humour and the like).

##### 2Who Are Your Writers?

Contrary to popular belief, Lorem Ipsum is not simply random text. It has roots in a piece of classical Latin literature from 45 BC, making it over 2000 years old.

##### 3Can I Communicate with My Writer?

Yes, you can send an e-mail along with your assignment code and our coordinator will send your assignment to an assigned writer who will respond you back as soon as possible.

##### 4How Do You Guarantee That You Will Follow My Instructions?

Our online expert writers follow your instructions while conducting the research and write your paper from scratch so that the completed assignment is 100% original and tailored to university’s requirements. All the resources used by the writers are duly referenced to avoid plagiarism.

##### 5How Is the Price Calculated?

Our writers offer the right prices after thoroughly checking your requirements. We are aware of the financial situation of the students and are ready to work in their budget. We provide the highest quality of service at the lowest price possible.

### Meet our Respectable Specialist

If writing tasks related to Physics are causing you trouble then here we have our expert all set to give you perfect guidance. Feel free to chat with him and discuss your problems anytime.

Higher Degree Holder

Expert in All Majors

Focus on your Success

Creative in Writing

David Will

Physics
Rating:

#### Physics

Mr.Will is our leading Physics expert who has completed a Master's in Physics from Edinburgh University and acquired three years of experience as a high school physics teacher and two years as a research analyst. He is a savior to students who encounter difficulties with Physics-related scholarly writing as he posses great skills in drawing a guide to quick study and the best academic preparation for dissertation and thesis.

#### Need more details about Writing services?

High Quality Custom Content Writing Fast Service. #1 Copywriting Agency. Unlimited Revisions. SEO Friendly. 100% Original Content. Free Meta Details. Within 1 - 3 Days. Highlights: Live Chat Option Available, Delivering Creative Content Solutions.

## Get It Done! Today

• 1,212,718Orders

• 4.9/5Rating

• 5,063Experts

"

Dissertation-
“My wound healing efficacy dissertation turned out just excellent with the extreme level of proficiency. I did not expect online writers to do such a scrupulous job. The content was precise, scientific, and thoughtful. Likewise, the sources were cited according to APA standards. I could not have been happier. I entrust my success to the dissertation professionals of Thestudenthelpline and recommend everyone for the same.” - Evelyn

Assignment writing-
"I never expected my first year to be that hard, and I panicked when I saw so many papers assigned to me. In spite of being a diligent student, I ordered this one assignment due to a lack of time to 'Thestudenthelpline'. I got my essay written according to almost all the instructions directed to the website. The writer did it well. Moreover, the price was not expensive either. I will use this service again if necessary." - Harper, a psychology freshman

Essay writing
"I ordered a 3-page essay on comparative analysis from Thestudenthelpline. Though the comparative analysis is not easy, it did not count as complex. The essay writers are very patient and open to customer views. Because of the cooperative writers, I was able to deliver my essay way before the deadline. The essay was structured with the proper sentence skills and had all the necessary sources, cited according to the rules. You can definitely place your order here if you need qualified assistance." - Aubrey

"

### Highlights

• 21 Step Quality Check
• 2000+ Ph.D Experts
• Live Expert Sessions
• Dedicated App
• Earn while you Learn with us
• Confidentiality Agreement
• Money Back Guarantee
• Customer Feedback

### Just Pay for your Assignment

• Turnitin Report

\$10.00
• Proofreading and Editing

\$9.00Per Page
• Consultation with Expert

\$35.00Per Hour
• Live Session 1-on-1

\$40.00Per 30 min.
• Quality Check

\$25.00
• Total

Free
• Let's Start

+ View More