Pressure driven turbine

Pressure driven turbine

Answer 2-

Pressure driven turbine is a machine which changes over the water powered vitality into mechanical vitality and further this mechanical vitality is changed over into electrical vitality by methods for generators. Turbines can be arranged in various manners like-

•           According to the sort of vitality at gulf. So in this segment of order there are two turbines-Impulse turbine, Reaction turbine

•           According to the sort of bearing of course through sprinter. In this segment there are 4 turbines-Tangential stream turbine, Radial stream turbine, hub stream turbine, blended stream turbine.

•           According to the sort of head at the gulf of turbine. In this segment there are 3 turbines-High head turbine, medium head turbine, Low head turbine.


There are some well known turbines and they are-

1. Pelton Turbine.

2. Radial flow reaction turbine.

3. Francis turbine.

4. Axial flow reaction turbine.

As per the given conditions in question Francis turbine is more suitable for such conditions.

Francis Turbine is discovered by JB Francis, francis turbine is defined as a inward flow reaction turbine having radial discharge at outlet is known as francis turbine. In the modern francis turbine, the water enters the runner of the turbine in the radial direction at outlet and leaves in the axial direction at the inlet of the runner. Thus this turbine is also be known as the mixed flow type turbine.


Francis Turbine properties-


Turbine type




Nominal O/P

520 kW

Rated Speed

360 rpm

Mass Runner

713 kg

Mass Rotor

500 kg

Mass generator

834 kg




Bearing Data-


Bearing Type

Roller Bearing

Upper Guide

NU 1052

Lower Guide


Lower Thrust




Roller Data-


Shaft Length


Shaft Diameter



The cutting edges of a Francis turbine are deliberately molded to separate the most extreme measure of vitality from the water coursing through it. Water should stream easily through the turbine for best productivity. The power applied by the water on the sharp edges makes the turbine turn and the revolution is changed over into power by a generator. Cutting edge shape is dictated by the stature of the water head accessible and the stream volume. Every turbine is intended for a particular arrangement of conditions experienced at a specific site. At the point when all around planned, a Francis turbine can catch 90%–95% of the vitality in the water.


The Francis configuration has been utilized with head statures of from 3 to 600 m yet it conveys its best execution somewhere in the range of 100 and 300 m. Stream rate is frequently the restricting variable for a given head. As the head stature rises, the size of the turbine must fall, making creation increasingly troublesome. High head Francis applications thusly require a huge stream to be fruitful. On the other hand, for low-head applications the stream must be low or the turbine will turn out to be exorbitantly enormous. It is therefore that while the Francis turbine is the most adaptable, elective plans are commonly utilized for both high and extremely low heads.


Francis turbines are likewise the heavyweights of the turbine world. The biggest, found at both the Itaipu power plant on the Brazil–Paraguay outskirt and at the Three Gorges dam in China, have creating limits of 700 MW each.


Answer 3-


A blower is a mechanical gadget that builds the weight of a gas by lessening its volume. An air blower is a particular kind of gas blower.


Blowers are like siphons: both press a liquid and both can ship the liquid through a funnel. As gases are compressible, the blower likewise lessens the volume of a gas. Fluids are moderately incompressible; while some can be compacted, the principle activity of a siphon is to pressurize and ship fluids.


Numerous blowers can be arranged, that is, the liquid is packed a few times in steps or stages, to build release pressure. Frequently, the subsequent stage is genuinely littler than the essential stage, to oblige the effectively compacted gas. Each stage further packs the gas and expands pressure. Those that are fueled by an electric engine can likewise be controlled utilizing a VFD or force inverter, anyway many (hermetic and semi-hermetic) blowers can just work at specific rates, since they may remember worked for oil siphons. The oil siphons are associated with a similar shaft that drives the blower and powers oil into the blower and engine direction. At low speeds, lacking amounts or no oil is constrained into the course, in the end prompting bearing disappointment, while at high speeds, exorbitant measures of oil might be lost from the orientation and blower and possibly into the release line because of sprinkling. In the long run the oil runs out and the heading are left unlubricated, again prompting disappointment, and the oil may defile the refrigerant, air or other working gas.

Types of Air Compressors:

Compressors are classified in many ways out of which the common one is the classification based on the principle of operation.

Types of Compressors:

1. Positive Displacement and

2. Roto-Dynamic Compressors.

Positive displacement compressors cab be further divided into Reciprocating and rotary compressors.

Under the classification of reciprocating compressors, we have

1.In-line compressors,

2. “V”-shaped compressors,

3. Tandem Piston compressors.

4. Single-acting compressors,

5. Double-acting compressors,

6. Diaphragm compressors.

The rotary compressors are divided into

1. Screw compressors,

2. Vane type compressors,

3. Lobe and scroll compressors and other types.


Centrifugal compressors, and the

1. Axial flow compressors.

2. The compressors are also classified based on other aspects like

References -

1. Wikipedia.

2. RK Bansal (book).

3. RS Khurmi (book).



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