Research Methodology and Data Collection

Research Methodology and Data Collection





Research Methodology and Data Collection


The aim of this study is to describe the national culture, social effectiveness, and desirable leadership attributes on the lower level management of the organisation. The research objective of the study is to analyse these attributes in the managerial views. The study conducted primary data collection method in order to connect data for this research work. The study will describe the population sampling method, sample size and the participation of respondents. The study also provides the justification for the results that have been collected from the participants (Humphries & Whelan, 2017). For this study, primary data Collection method will be used and for that research philosophy, research approach, research design, data collection method and research instrument will be demonstrated. Data analysis technique which is used to examine and filter the data in such a way that the proper findings can be drawn from the data will be demonstrated. The SPSS software is used to filter the data and collect the most appropriate data for the research. Apart from this study also demonstrate the instrument that that will be used in the study which is directly link with the research questions of the study. There are 10 research questions based on the research topic. In addition the ethical implication will also be discussed in the study. The importance of ethics in conducting research is very significant in order to conduct justifiable research. The ethical concerns will be addressed in this study that may arise from the participant selection. The research will conduct survey in order to collect the data for the research work (Song, Montabon & Xu, 2018). Survey will be conducted through online platforms in the organisation. The members who are the participants should be the members of the organisation which can directly relate these attributes which impacts on the lower level management of the organisation.

Research objective: To analyse national culture, societal effectiveness and desirable leadership attributes in the managerial views.

Research Questions:

  1. How national culture, societal effectiveness and desirable leadership attributes impacts decision making process in the organization.
  2. How cultural magnitudes could affect the distinctive personal comportment?
  3. What is the relationship between national culture, societal effectiveness and leadership qualities within organization?
  4. How these attributes impact the lower management of the organization?
  5. Why these attributes are important for the managerial views.
  6. What types of leadership attributes impact the performance of lower management of organization?
  7. What are the various approaches to the organizational efficiency?
  8. What are the different forms of leadership?
  9. What types of cultural attributes impact the performance of lower management of organization?
  10. What types of Social attributes impact the performance of lower management of organization?

Sampling design

The sampling technique plays an important part in order to assess the accurateness of the research. There are different techniques to collect the sample in the research work. The main motive of sampling technique is to conduct is the research work in such a way that it accomplishes the objectives of the research work and makes research easy and feasible for the researcher. The probability sampling technique is also classified and contains stratified random sampling, systematic random sampling, simple random sampling, multi- stage random sampling and cluster sampling (Peretz, Fried & Levi, 2018). Whereas, non-probability sampling technique comprise of quota sampling, purposive technique and convenience sampling technique. For this study probability sampling is the most appropriate choice. The probability sampling involves respondents that are directly related with the organization lower level management and the survey is given by them. Probability sampling avoids all kinds of bias behavior which is not at all supported in any research work.  Apart from that, focus of sampling technique is to arrange the data in such a way that it makes easy for researcher to conduct the research and fulfill the needs and requirements of the research work. The two most important sampling techniques are the probability sampling technique and non-probability sampling technique.

Data collection

Data collection is the method that collects all the necessary data that is required to conduct the research work. There are basically two types of data collection method that comprises of primary and secondary data collection method. The primary data refers to the data that is fresh and first hand. Thus it is customized and personalized as per the requirement of the study. Collection and managing this kind of data require more time and money as compare to other data collection methods. For conducting primary data collection method surveys is the most preferable choice. In this study primary data collection method will be used to collect the data for the research work (Farndale & Sanders, 2017). The survey is conducted to collect the data for the study. Survey will be conducted for a sample size of 100 respondents that belongs to same organizations or reigns as per the requirements. A questionnaire will be designed to commence the survey and respondents have to answers all the questions that have been asked in survey. The question are close ended that means have to select the answers from the given set of multiple choices. This will eradicate the descriptive answers from the respondents and provide a clear cut answers from the respondents. The respondents who will be considered as the sample for conducting survey will be selected on probability sample technique basis to avoid biases while conducting survey. Probability sampling technique will provide results that are almost unbiased and relevant. For this study probability sampling is the most preferable choice to conduct the survey. The respondents give answer through automated mode. This will be helpful for the researcher to conduct the survey in most appropriate manner and collect data without any difficulty (Chiappero-Martinetti et al., 2018). In addition, it is also easy for the respondents to give survey as per their comfort ability and time.

The members for the survey will be selected from the organization lower management department full stop these members will give survey from the online platform that is the length of the provided to them which contains all the multiple choice question. These participants need to give survey by choosing the most appropriate option from the multiple choice questions. Apart from this only lower level management participants will be allowed to give this survey and the confidentiality of the participant will be maintained throughout the survey (Yousaf, Ellahi & Khan, 2019). The main motive for the confidentiality of the members is that no one can question their choices after the results that organization gets.

Research Instrument

Research instrument in an essential tool in research methodology as it is designed collect the data that is authentic for the reach work. In this research work survey is the research instrument that helps to conduct the research in significant direction. Survey is comprises of significant question that are relevant and relatable to the research topic. The question will be multiple choices and are close ended. As this will avoid descriptive answers from respondents and help conduct the research without biases (Frederiks, Spinks, Hobman & Dane, 2016). They will have different choices for question and select the most preferable one. The study requires quantitative data and survey is the best choice to collect quantitative data.

Research Design

Research design states to the entire strategy that is selected to integrate the diverse components of the study in articulate and coherent way. The purpose of research design is to endorse that the evidence found will effectively address the research problem as unambiguously as possible. It is defined as the framework of process and technique selected by the researcher to combine different parts of research in a logical manner so that the research problem is easily handled and solved. An understanding is gained in order to use particular methodology in conducting the research. It provides a clear understanding of the research questions for the researcher. It turns as outline for the market research that will be conducted in the research work. Therefore, the research work becomes easy with the help of research design. The research design is broadly classified into three categories that comprises of exploratory research, descriptive and experimental research design (Abgaz, Dorn, Piringer, Wandl-Vogt & Way, 2018). This research design is more classified on the basis of data which is introduced to them by implementing philosophy, approach and design. Hence, the research design can be reflected as the cycle which needs research philosophy and approach as a paddle so as to conduct the research in appropriate direction. In this study, descriptive research design will be used for data collection and analysis in the form of survey and questionnaires.

Justification for choosing descriptive design

The descriptive research design is used to describe the circumstances and happening of an event. It does not regulate and make precise predictions. It measures all the variables that is stated in the research work. It is the most suitable choice to conduct the research. As per the requirement of the study quantitative data is required and descriptive research design will be easily understood. Besides, the data is based on primary research so the descriptive design helps to provide understanding attitude for the research work (Dreyer, Macedo & Velentgas, 2019). A survey is usually conducted to collect quantitative data. To accomplish all the objectives of the research work it is important to conduct this research with descriptive design.

Data analysis technique

The data analysis is the technique that is used to examine, sort and filter the data in such a way that proper findings can be drawn from the data in order to accomplish the objective of the research work. The key focus of data analysis technique is used to examine the data and find all the answers of the research questions. Data mining and data modeling technique is adopted for data analysis that results in more understanding of the data. This technique will help to extract the data from the collected information and make it valid for the research work. The data analysis technique is broadly classified into two parts and this includes SPSS and thematic technique (Bailey & Burch, 2017). In thematic technique themes are mad on the bases of topic that make easy the understanding of the data that is collected in the research work. The SPSS is the software in which analyze the data that is collected from the researcher. Risks in the results and in data can be reduced and avoided by using the most appropriate and perfect tool for data analysis. The two most common types of data analysis techniques are qualitative and quantitative data analysis techniques. Data analysis is a widely used method which is used for business purposes and whenever predictive modeling is needed. Thus, prediction is required in all these tasks and prediction results in risks which are unavoidable. However, a scope is gained for alteration in terms of impact on the results. In qualitative data analysis, the involvement of numbers is almost no or very less whereas it is not the case in quantitative data analysis technique. For this research work, quantitative data analysis will be done. Various tools are used for data analysis which involves correlation, regression, ANOVA, z-test, f-test, SPSS and so on. Here, SPSS tool will be used for analyzing the data. SPSS analysis uses software and it is used by the researcher to perform statistical operations (Bailey & Burch, 2017). This tool is significant in managing the data and providing the entire control to the user for performing the operations.

Ethical Considerations

It is considered as the most important part of the research work. This will involve the set of regulations in the research work and provide authentication to the research work. It is reflected in the work that is performed in research work and resulting from research methodology segments. The ethical problems can be arise in any segment of research methodology that comprises of data collection, data analysis etc.  In this research the ethical issue faced during the data collection method is to maintain the confidently among the respondents in order to avoid all kind of biasness. Therefore survey is conducted in the organizations itself and all the members that are selected for the participation should be present in the organization. This survey was conducted online through the mobile phones. A link is shared to all the members that are participants in this survey (Cooper, Hedges & Valentine, 2019). A definite time period is given in order to conduct a survey as this is the multiple choice question so all the respondents can complete it in very short time.  However, excellent research work not only involves the accomplishment of objective of the research work but it also provides a research work with that fulfill all ethics. There are certain principals that are related to ethical consideration that involve various points (Curtis et al., 2018). The dignity should be maintained while conducting the research work and research should not harm or disrespect nay participant. The privacy of the participant should be prioritized and ensured. The satisfactory level of confidentiality should be maintained throughout the research work. The data should be taken from authentic sites that comprise of Google scholar etc. any kind of deceptive information is not acceptable in any condition. In this study the primary data is used and for that no bias behavior is acceptable which may lead the research work in wrong direction.  Any type of communication and information shared during the research should have honesty and transparency. It is important to conduct the research in appropriate manner that aims to fulfill all the criteria of the research work. The research that that do not fulfill all the criteria of ethics is not acceptable in any sense. The research work is not regarded as non-appropriate and in future it may create problems. It is significant to consider the wellbeing of the researcher that is included in the research work (Curtis et al., 2018). The approval of the respondents should be taken while conducting the survey there should not be forced to give the survey their decision should be admired by the researcher.

There are different rules and regulations are followed by the university in the context with ethics and that should be followed by the researcher. It is important to overview the rules and regulation of the university as per the ethics they followed for the research. The respondents should be informed regarding the topic that is chosen for the research work (Bailey & Burch, 2017).  The respondents can withdraw their name from the survey according to their choice and timing. The language of the research work should be proper and do not involve any offensive behavior. This may create problem in future and the research work is not considered appropriate. Apart from this, the most common issue that arises in the research work is the plagiarism. It is very important to check plagiarism while conducting research.




Abgaz, Y., Dorn, A., Piringer, B., Wandl-Vogt, E., & Way, A. (2018). A semantic model for traditional data collection questionnaires enabling cultural analysis.

Bailey, J. S., & Burch, M. R. (2017). Research methods in applied behavior analysis. London: Routledge.

Chiappero-Martinetti, E., Von Jacobi, N., Maestripieri, L., Giroletti, T., Ziegler, R., Van der Linden, M., & van Beers, C. (2018). Primary data collection in case of social innovation: templates for a mixed method, multi-level approach.

Cooper, H., Hedges, L. V., & Valentine, J. C. (Eds.). (2019). The handbook of research synthesis and meta-analysis. Russell Sage Foundation.

Curtis, M. J., Alexander, S., Cirino, G., Docherty, J. R., George, C. H., Giembycz, M. A., ... & MacEwan, D. J. (2018). Experimental design and analysis and their reporting II: updated and simplified guidance for authors and peer reviewers. British journal of pharmacology175(7), 987-993.

Dreyer, N. A., Macedo, A. F., & Velentgas, P. (2019). Primary Data Collection for Pharmacoepidemiology. Pharmacoepidemiology, 342-354.

Farndale, E., & Sanders, K. (2017). Conceptualizing HRM system strength through a cross-cultural lens. The International Journal of Human Resource Management28(1), 132-148.

Frederiks, E., Spinks, A., Hobman, E., & Dane, S. (2016). Pathways for primary data collection in EUDM. Australia: CSIRO.

Humphries, S. A., & Whelan, C. (2017). National culture and corporate governance codes. Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society.

Peretz, H., Fried, Y., & Levi, A. (2018). Flexible work arrangements, national culture, organisational characteristics, and organisational outcomes: A study across 21 countries. Human Resource Management Journal28(1), 182-200.

Song, F. S., Montabon, F., & Xu, Y. (2018). The impact of national culture on corporate adoption of environmental management practices and their effectiveness. International Journal of Production Economics205, 313-328.

Yousaf, M., Ellahi, A., & Khan, M. (2019). Primary Data Collection for Assessing the Impact of Public Service Motivation on Red Tape and Resigned Satisfaction Among Public Servants. SAGE Publications Ltd.









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