There are many strategies companies can adopt to increase the performance and to cover all the sectors where the company is lacking (Nyaga, Whipple & Lynch, 2010, p. 103). Collaboration and integration are two important factors that can affect supply chain performance. It is said that the supply chains are very important to increase the growth and performance of a company (Goffin, Lemke and Szwejczewski, 2006, p. 191).
Example 1 – Primark
To deeply understand the supply chains “Primark” it is very important to understand the company first. Primark stores limited is an Irish company with its stores located in Ireland, the United Kingdom, and Spain (Primark, 2008). According to a report by Ethical Consumer magazine, it was revealed that Primark is the most unethical retailer (Whitehead, 2005). It is known for cost-effective services and products. After the tragedy of Rana Plaza, Primark focused on its supply chains, stakeholders and to save his public reputation.
Primark came first for the safety of Primark building, in Bangladesh. Primark however faced the challenge and stand out for their workers. Primark started reconstructing their structural integrity with a dedicated team of experts who were hired specially to handle sustainability and training. The team was based in China, India, Bangladesh, and Turkey, etc. The purpose of Primark is to provide satisfactory services to the and great value and quality to its Primark customers.
Example 2- Apple
Apple provides innovative technology solutions to its customers. After applying supply chain management Apple receives a great success in return. Apple faces challenges related to political, economic and technological factors. Apple is still facing legal hurdles as it manufactured banned phone parts of US (Mohammad, Usman & Md, 2015). Apple did not have the support of its workers and even there were many suicide cases in 2010. 16 workers also suffered an explosion in one of the facility (Mohammad, Usman & Md, 2015). Apple tried to change his strategy and introduced new and competitive smartphones, computers, tablets, etc. Apple focuses on new innovations with cheap cost and resources (Pratap, 2017).
Supply chain management is based on the needs of the customers. It is very important to give the services to the customer what he requires in the right quantity and quality (Zeithaml, 1988; Christopher, 1998, p.2).
Due to an increase in economic limitations, the cost of raw materials and labour has been increased. New strategies and ideas should be introduced from time to time to provide new and good quality items (Schwefel, 1987, p.6)
Change is necessary in the market as there are different demands of different customers which change according to time and needs (George, Freeling, and Court 1994)
It is very important to create a healthy relationship with your partners or suppliers to provide the products at the right time to the customer which can create more opportunities (Nadler and Tushman, 1997, p.226)
The success of your business depends on the performance of your supply chain. A poor supply chain will create more and more losses for your company. It is very important to gain the customer’s trust. Customer service and customer satisfaction is the main goal of every company to achieve it. With that, it will be an increase in their brand’s name and reputation.
All businesses need management to survive in the industry for long term with the help of supply chains (Bechtel and Jayaram, 1997; Childerhouse et al., 2002; Tan, 2001; Vonderembse, 2002) . It depends on the management of supply chains, poor supply chains can be costly and can take extra investment and time. Supply chains need time to understand new ways and systems implemented within the organization which can complex the working of supply chains. A company should have the good understanding of the advantages and disadvantages to form a successful supply chain.
Bechtel, C., & Jayaram, J., 1997. Supply chain management: A strategic perspective. International Journal of Logistics Management 8(1), 15-34
Childerhouse, P., Aitken, J., Townhill, D.R. (2002) Analysis and design of focused demand chains. Journal of Operations Management, 20, 675-689
Nyaga, G.N., Whipple, J.M., & Lynch, D.F. (2010). Examining supply chain relationships: Do buyer and supplier perspective on collaborative relationships differ? Journal of Operations Management, 28(2), 101-114. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jom.2009.07.005
Pratap, A. (2017). Apple’s Generic and Intensive Growth Strategies. Retreived from https://www.cheshnotes.com/2017/07/generic-and-intensive-growth-strategies-of-apple [accessed 27 july 2020]
Primark (2008), “Our Code of Conduct”. [online] Available at: http://www.ethicalprimark.com/index.html [Accessed 27 july 2020]
Tan, K.C. (2001). A framework of supply chain management literature. European Journal of Purchasing & Supply Management (7), 39-48
Usman, Mohammad, and Shabbir (2015). A Critical Analysis of Internal and External Environment of Apple Inc. International journal of Economics, Commerce and Management.3(6), pp.955-967
Vonderembse, M.A. (2002). Building Supplier Relationships that Enhance Manufacturing Performance. Spiro Press, London
Whithead, J. (2005). “Primark tops list of unethical clothes shop in poll that shames high-street brands” [online] Available at: http://www.brandrepublic.com/News/532319/Primark-tops-list-unethical-clothes-shops-poll-shames-high-street-brands/ [Accessed 27 july 2020]
Lobbying has a special place and attention across the United Nations. It can be everywhere like offices, hotels, etc. It is said that many of the Lobbying activities have damaged the reputation and the integrity of the government which affects the decision-making of government. In an old Kent book, it has been stated that lobbying in New Zealand is a form of modern communication of art to support the opinions heard by decision-makers. The main purpose of lobbying is to use decision-makers for commercial profits and advantages (Harris, 2002, p. 76). These lobbyists play an important role in decision making which spread awareness between the politicians and decrease the negativity in the public (Strong & Tylor, 2017, p. 144). There are tactics in lobbying which are used by many practitioners to dishonour them publically (Berg, 2012, p. 98). The behaviour and nature of lobbyists are often being questionable (Zetter, 2008). According to the Federal regulation Act 1946, it is stated that these laws required lobbyists register for the reports.
According to Thompson and John (2007), lobbyists are mistrusted by the public within the political process. There are different types of lobbyists like consultants, and volunteers but the kind of work they are doing makes a difference. Many consultants were hired by the clients to work as a lobbyist (Thompson and John, 2007). Government laws and definitions should be clear in lobbying. Politicians are there to serve the public not to gain profits from the businesses. The relationship between human rights and trade has been increasing among trade partners. New trade agreements have been introduced for trade powers like the United States and Canada. Different lobby groups take care of the advocacy and decision making taken by the government.
To remove diplomacy the diplomats need to start serving in the region. It is a market where the aim or the common goal is based on public opinion (Harris and McGrath, 2012, p. 988). There are many active approaches to lobbying which maintain people's trust (OECD, 2009). It is said that New Zealand should not follow OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). Market lobbying is involved in a human engagement where two values came together in conflict. The first value is referred to as the market value where votes are equal to the dollars but distributed unequally within the local and international. The second factor is of a citizen who holds one vote and the votes are distributed equally within the nation.
Berg, K. T. (2012). The ethics of lobbying: Testing an ethical framework for advocacy in public relations. Journal of Mass Media Ethics: Exploring questions of media morality, 27(2), 97-114.
Harris, P. (2002). Defining and demystifying lobbying. Psychology and Marketing, 19(12), 987-992.
Harris, P., & McGrath, C. (2012). Political marketing and lobbying: A neglected perspective and research agenda. Journal of Political Marketing, 11(1-2), 75-94.
OECD (2009) Lobbyists, Governments and Public Trust, Paris: OECD
Strong, C., & Tyler, F. (2017). New Zealand media camouflage political lobbying. Pacific Journalism Review, 23(2), 144.
Thomson, S. & John S. (2007). Public Affairs in Practice: A Practical Guide to Lobbying. London & Philadelphia, PA: Kogan Page
Zetter, L. (2014). Lobbying: The art of political persuasion. Petersfield, England: Harriman House
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