Toohey Forest Research report

Toohey Forest Research report

ABSTRACT:

Toohey Forest is typical of the open eucalypt forests that covered Brisbane. Rainforest species grow along creeks and in moist gullies. It is home to over 400 species of native wildlife and plant species. The forest features sandstone outcrops and is made up of a variety of eucalypt tree. The understorey has wattles, she-oaks, heath species, creepers, grasses and in sandstone areas, stands of grass trees. There is some vine forest and closed scrub along the creeks and gullies. This report depicts the geological as well as geotechnical features of Toohey forest of a certain stretch located behind campus. The survey of land is done using pulse and dumpy level which shows the topography of the terrain we covered. It has undulated terrain with variety of soil as classified. From the test sample of soil, it has been observed that the area has different variety of soil from start to end point. The soil properties have been observed and mentioned in the report.

 

INTRODUCTION:

Toohey Forest is named after James Toohey, an Irishman made wealthy in the California gold rush. He selected these lands in 1872 and his family held the forests until Council gradually acquired them after 1945.

Mt Gravatt is named after Lieutenant George Gravatt who oversaw the Moreton Bay Penal settlement at Brisbane Town in 1842.

Toohey Mountain and Mt Gravatt are made of tough quartzite formed 380 million years ago - a time when the coastline was far to the west and the region was deep under ocean. Within the cutting along Outlook Drive at Mt Gravatt, you can see the tightly folded bands of quartzite. This is an indication of the enormous forces that shaped the ancient ocean floor sediments and resulting mountains.

The aerial view of forest area as shown in the figure1:

 

Figure1: Aerial view of forest

Currently located roughly 23 nautical miles inland from the mouth of Brisbane river and it occupies an area of 80 sq. km. The geomorphological rise and eastern ward shift of the eastern edge of Australian continent which led to the familiar environment we now live in can be summarized in four major episodes: deposition, crumpling and uplift , volcanic eruptions, deep magma and stabilization of shelf, sediment accumulation on nearly stabilized continent and further soft sediment accumulation in small lakes with some balastic volcanic eruption on stable continents. The geological time synopses can be seen in figure 2:

 

In figure 3 we can see the map of forest. 'Toohey Forest' is a large area of bushland in the southern suburbs of Brisbane. Scattered throughout the forest are innumerable small sandstone boulders. There's heaps of problems and it's nice & shady, so many summer afternoons and many many layers of fingertip skin have been lost here!  the lowest elevation site explored at Toohey Forest, is associated with the Tingalpa Formation. Formed in the early Mesozoic the beds that make up the Tingalpa Formation are described as being dominated by shales, siltstones and calcareous sandstones (Gould, 1967). The samples observed were identified as fine grained, well sorted clastic sedimentary rocks. Within some of these layers preserved fossils of various plant materials were discovered. The high clay content and immaturity of these fine grained sedimentary rocks classes them as shales or mudstones, consistent with their classification as part of the Tingalpa formation. Having previously been used as a quarry, the base of the outcrop is littered with rock types transported from other regions; these are not to be confused with the strata exhibited in the outcrop.  Observations concluded the strata was composed primarily of microcrystalline quartz and exhibited products of metamorphism. Folds occurred at various intervals and in some instances formed vertical bedding, an occurrence that suggests the strata had experienced pressure generally associated with the movement of tectonic plates. In addition the dominance of chert and “metaquartzite” in the strata implies the area has experienced high temperature contact that may have caused protolithic sediments to metamorphose or melt and recrystallise (Gould, 1967).

 

Figure4: Top ground view of the forest

In figure 5 the top view of the forest is shown. The stratum’s formation can be dated to the lower Paleozoic era (Whitaker et al, 1980). The dating and elevation of the stratum indicate that the older partially weathered Neranleigh Fernvale group lies above the younger Tingalpa beds, an occurrence known as nonconformity. It exhibits large pale quartz-sandstone boulders which rest along the hill. An average clast size of 2mm was identified although some larger, rounded, pebbly clasts (average: 5mm) could be observed throughout. The large sandstone boulders exhibited large pore space; an indication that they could easily hold fluid. The sedimentary rocks are dated to the Triassic-Jurassic eras and are thus known to be younger than the Tingalpa Beds although also younger than the Neranleigh Fernvale group, indicating another nonconformity as the weathered sandstones lay atop the weathered surface of the Neranleigh Fernvale. The contact between the two of these beds presents continuity the historical understanding of the Forest’s underlying stratigraphy. The contact at site D implies the Tingalpa Formation is underlain to the East by the Neranleigh-Fernvale group while being overlain by the Woogaroo subgroup in the West (Gould, 1967).  Furthermore as it is understood that the shales associated with the Tingalpa Formation have experienced weathering and erosion the contact between the two sediments would be described as disconformity although this may not have be observable from the distance of the lookout. In figure 5 the cross sectional view of the forest is shown. The soil profile of the forest can be seen in figure 6.

 

Methodology: Before starting methodology, I would like to describe some properties of soil as below:

  1. pH
  2. Color
  3. Texture
  4. Organic matter
  5. Carbonate
  6. Particle size analysis

 

 

 Soil Texture: The particles that make up soil are categorized into three groups by size – sand, silt, and clay. Sand particles are the largest and clay particles the smallest. Most soils are a combination of the three. The relative percentages of sand, silt, and clay are what give soil its texture. A clay loam texture soil, for example, has nearly equal parts of sand, slit, and clay. These textural separates result from the weathering process. There are 12 soil textural classes represented on the soil texture triangle. This triangle is used so that terms like “clay” or “loam” always have the same meaning. Each texture corresponds to specific percentages of sand, silt, or clay. Knowing the texture helps us manage the soil. Soil texture can be determined in the laboratory or estimated in the field. The field method is referred to as “texture by feel.” Sandy soils do not form a ball when a moist sample is squeezed in the hand. Loamy soils will form a ball when moist but will not form a ribbon of more than 5 centimetres when pushed between thumb and forefinger. Clayey soils also form a ball when moist and will also form a ribbon of greater than 5 cm when forced between thumb and forefinger. Primary minerals: present in original rock from which soil is formed. These occur predominantly in sand and silt fractions, and are weathering resistant (quartz, feldspars); · Secondary minerals: formed by decomposition of primary minerals, and their subsequent weathering and recomposition into new ones (clay minerals). · Humus or organic matter (decomposed organic materials) Mineral type has large influence on soil behaviour: · Ion exchange, related to cation exchange capacity · Hydration and swelling; dehydration and shrinking · Flocculation and dispersion · Preferential flow, as through soil cracks · Barrier to flow, as by swelling clays · Chemical adsorption of contaminants and nutrients, both in liquid and gas phase. The soil texture can be depicted from figure 7.

 

 

Figure7: Soil Texture classification

 

 Soil Structure: Soil structure is the arrangement of soil particles into small clumps, called peds or aggregates. Soil particles (sand, silt, clay and even organic matter) bind together to form peds. Depending on the composition and on the conditions in which the peds formed (getting wet and drying out, or freezing and thawing, foot traffic, farming, etc.), the ped has a specific shape. They could be granular (like gardening soil), blocky, columnar, platy, massive (like modelling clay) or single-grained (like beach sand). Structure correlates to the pore space in the soil which influences root growth and air and water movement. The arrangement and organization of soil particles in the soil, and the tendency of individual soil particles to bind together in aggregates; Aggregation creates intra-aggregate and inter-aggregate pore space, thereby changing flow paths for water, gases, solutes and pollutants; Effects on plant growth operates through:

 1. Aeration 2. Soil compaction 3. Water relations 4. Soil temperature

Color: Soil colour is influenced primarily by soil mineralogy – telling us what is in a specific soil. Soils high in iron are deep orange brown to yellowish-brown. Those soils that are high in organic matter are dark brown or black. Colour can also tell us how a soil “behaves” – a soil that drains well is brightly coloured and one that is often wet and soggy will have a mottled pattern of grey, reds, and yellows.

 

 

Figure8: Station Marking in the forest

 

pH: Soil pH or soil reaction is an indication of the acidity or alkalinity of soil and is measured in pH units. Soil pH is defined as the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration. The pH scale goes from 0 to 14 with pH 7 as the neutral point. As the amount of hydrogen ions in the soil increases the soil pH decreases thus becoming more acidic. From pH 7 to 0 the soil is increasingly more acidic and from pH 7 to 14 the soil is increasingly more alkaline or basic.

Descriptive terms commonly associated with certain ranges in soil pH are:

  • Extremely acid: < than 4.5; lemon=2.5; vinegar=3.0; stomach acid=2.0; soda=2–4
  • Very strongly acid: 4.5–5.0; beer=4.5–5.0; tomatoes=4.5
  • Strongly acid: 5.1–5.5; carrots=5.0; asparagus=5.5; boric acid=5.2; cabbage=5.3
  • Moderately acid: 5.6–6.0; potatoes=5.6
  • Slightly acid: 6.1–6.5; salmon=6.2; cow's milk=6.5
  • Neutral: 6.6–7.3; saliva=6.6–7.3; blood=7.3; shrimp=7.0
  • Slightly alkaline: 7.4–7.8; eggs=7.6–7.8
  • Moderately alkaline: 7.9–8.4; sea water=8.2; sodium bicarbonate=8.4
  • Strongly alkaline: 8.5–9.0; borax=9.0
  • Very strongly alkaline: > than 9.1; milk of magnesia=10.5, ammonia=11.1; lime=12
  •  

Organic matter: Soil organic matter is the term used for all living, or once-living, materials within, or added to, the soil. This includes roots developing during the growing season, incorporated crop stubble or added manures and slurries. All organic matter contains carbon (C), but it also contains nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), sulphur (S), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca) and a whole range of micronutrients (e.g. copper, (Cu) and zinc (Zn)). Organic matter adds to soil fertility and overall soil health by enhancing the physical, chemical and biological properties of soil:

 ? Fresh plant residues fuel biological life in soil

? The amount of active decomposing organic matter in soil has a large impact on biological properties, nutrient cycling and soil structure

? Stable organic matter changes the colour of soil and adds significantly to the active surface area, thereby changing the physical and chemical properties and processes in soil. This is very important in sandy and light silty soils.

We had two days in the toohey forest. Day one was using the ‘true pulse' and ‘dumpy level'. Toohey forest is located next to the nathan campus-say something about what the forest is like and where it is. We used a tripod and put the true pulse on top. We followed the compass -north 220 degrees and went from our point 1 which was the starting point to the bottom point which was near the water (point19). We made measurements every few meters. We would read the degrees and metres from each point-the true pulse would measure it for us and we would write it down. We started from the start of the route and ended up doing 19 points. The last point was near the water. The soil is very different when you compare it from the start to the finish. The more the soil is closer to the water the more the soil is softer and isn’t as hard. You can visually see a difference in the size of fragments that are in the soil and the colour of the soil which is amazing. After we measured out 19points using the true pulse- which was very easy as all we did was follow the compass and that’s how me made our path. After we finished this we ended up using a ‘dumpy level'. The dumpy level was a bit more complicated as we had to be accurate with the height of aiming the dumpy level. If it was too far then the dumpy level couldn’t find the big ruler that we used to aim the dumpy at. The dumpy level worked; we picked out a point from the start of our path. We had 4 points from the start to the finish that we picked out being point 1 was at the start and point 4 at the bottom. Each point had a back sight and fore sight viewing. Wed place the dumpy level on a point and aim it infront to someone who was holding a big ruler. The dumpy level would have to hit that ruler and give us a reading of top, middle, and bottom. After getting the fore sight wed do the same to back sight- aim the dumpy to a ruler and get the readings. Wed then pick a point 2 after getting those readings. Making sure that the dumpy level didn’t move just the person holding the ruler- hed go infront and go at the back holding the ruler while the dumpy was stationed in one position. The dumpy level was stationed on a tripod and finding the ruler that someone was holding was hard as it required the dumpy be placed still and straight. The same was done for point 2,3,4. We picked each point out roughly. We could calculate how far away the dumpy level was from the person holding the ruler by getting the top measurement and using it by the bottom measurement on each point and given by 100= (top-bottom) *100. That was day one in the forest. Some glimpses can be seen in figure 8 and 9.

 

 

Figure9: Observation by dumpy level

Day two in toohey forest: It was cloudy for both days and raining while we were in the forest getting our readings and samples. A good thing from this experience was that we gained surveying experience that we can use in our resume. Day 2 in the forest we were collecting samples. We started from the top of our path. Our group was the green group and we had previously mapped out our path while doing the true pulse recordings with our compass. We picked out a spot at the top where we dug a hole 1. With each hole we used a special digger that we had to dig and spin to the ground to get the sample of soil out. We would collect 4 samples of soil from one hole. Each sample would be deeper and deeper, and each soil sample would be different in colour and texture. We measure how deep each new sample of soil was with a ruler and write it down. After completing hole 1 we then did the same to hole 2, 3 and 4. We'd calculate the distance from hole 1-2, 2-3, 3-4. We found that the soil was very different from hole 1-hole4. We found that the closer the soil to the river the more rocks it had. And the colour was red. As the top of the path it was lighter colour clay and gully.

 

As discussed above we have taken 19 pulse reading as shown in the table below:

Station

True Pulse reading(degree)

Distance(m)

1

0.7

8

2

2

11.1

3

3

8

4

3.8

18.3

5

6.4

14

6

6.4

16

7

7.3

9.6

8

9

8

9

9.6

5

10

13.5

8.2

11

13.5

9

12

11.2

3

13

10.8

3.8

14

8.7

9

15

9.8

8

16

11.4

5

17

13.5

4

18

11.8

5

19

12.2

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

We have also taken back sight and foresight reading with dumpy level as four station. Though it was little complicated due to undulated land but having lot to learn.

Station

Back Sight

B.S. Caculation

Fore Sight

Fore Sight Calculation

1

1.4, 1.35,1.3

10m

2.85,2.75,2.65

20

2

0.37,0.27,0.17

20m

4,3.9,3.8

20

3

0.2,0.15,0.1

10m

4.9,4.8,4.7

20

4

1.5,1.47,1.43

7

4.29,4.25,4.16

13

 

From above table we can see there are high rise and fall in the ground and thus the undulation.

Results:

True Pulse data:

From the true pulse data by taking at 19 points whose data is already mentioned the transect graph has been plotted and the profile of the ground of forest can be depicted by joining the midpoint of every bar. The graph has been shown below:

 

From above graph the profile can be easily depicted.

 

 

 

Dumpy level result:

From the data of dumpy level i.e. back sight and fore sight the ground rise and fall is clearly seen within a small stretch has much variation. The reading has been taken from top to bottom at four points as clearly seen.

Figure10: Observation by Dumpy level

Result from soil sample collection: The soil collected from four holes has been tested in laboratory. From each hole four sample has been taken whose data from laboratory has been mentioned in Appendix 1, Appendix 2, Appendix 3, Appendix 4. The final interpretation of the soil has been mentioned in the discussion part. The soil has much variation in color, texture while moving from dry area to river side. The detailed interpretation of the soil data has been discussed in the discussion part.

 

Discussion:

The ground profile of forest is undulated type. The soil has large variation in term of their physical properties. The color of the soil is light away from the river side. As soon as we move closer to river side its color gets red and it has rocky appearance. From the laboratory data it has been concluded from particle size analysis attached in the appendix that the soil is uniformly graded with all types of particle size. It follows the S curve plotted between the size of grain and percentage finer. It has also been interpreted that the top layer of the soil is silty clay classified as CM up to 5 cm. The middle layer is sandy loam and bottom layer is clayey sand ranges from 20 cm to 40 cm. As we are approaching toward the river side the organic matter percentage in soil is getting increased. The pH of the soil ranges between 3-4 which depicts the acidic nature of soil. The carbonate percentage and organic matter percentage clearly shows the presence of variety of species in the forest which make it rich in organic matter. Thus, from the laboratory data it can be predicted that the soil has variation in color, texture and organic matter. The pH value shows the acidic nature of soil which is suitable for certain types of plants only. The coefficient of uniformity of the soil ranges between 1-3 which shows that the soil is uniformly graded. The top profile of the ground can be seen in the figure 11 below:

 

Figure 11: View of Forest Area

 

References

Geoscience Australia, 2015. Titanium Fact Sheet. [Online]
Available at: http://www.australianminesatlas.gov.au/education/fact_sheets/titanium.html
[Accessed May 2016].

Goehring, L. & Morris, S. W., 2006. An experimental Investigation of the Scaling of Columnar Joints. University of Toronto: Department of Physics.

Gould, R. E., 1967. The geology of the Slacks Creek area, Southeast Queensland. University of Queensland: Department of Geology, pp. 115-144.

Grotzinger, J. J. T. H., 2014. Understanding Earth. New York: W.H. Freeman.

Hamblin, W. K., 1978. The Earth's Dynamic Systems, A Textbook in Physical Geology. Minneapolis(Minnesota): Burgess Publishing Company.

Hodgkinson, J., 2007. The Geological History of Southeast Queensland with Special Reference to Samford. Brisbane: Queensland University of Technology: PhD School of Natural Resource Sciences.

Jane, H., 2007. The Geological History of Southeast Queensland with Special Reference to Samford. Brisbane: Queensland University of Technology: PhD School of Natural Resource Sciences.

https://projectblue.blob.core.windows.net/media/Default/Imported%20Publication%20Docs/Soil%20Organic%20Matter.pdf

https://www.esf.edu/pubprog/brochure/soilph/soilph.htm

https://espace.library.uq.edu.au/data/UQ_204217/s00855804_1991_14_9_364.pdf?Expires=1590223357&Key-Pair-Id=APKAJKNBJ4MJBJNC6NLQ&Signature=IWPUpul54gHfK7dpuNffUoH9EOMaz7noow2W7rxMEYo1DD-wxnKQi2mxqvaY4~-P3T~TOZdytlq1rY7ugRNJyhyt6jgjGzreQ814TmGGKAASdR85ha~-HdHHV61~4LhXy~d7~ISAsQFF~8YNFjlWqu0nS4-~SFijzfG2iFINNTyWgMsKw5Jc8Cy~7st8SPC1OXk~LrH3lW6CHdwcafMdHg8FBQtGeMgpXfbs-ofWlepwFLOGOZH4hHZFbXA-VbMPw1QaKovhqx2QCQBOD6mozu~RAAibQ4BLb4c8l5dACQyXi5tfmY-CFC-LSWrZW2bPDXHbOp6WNaXb3ug9PoOztA__

http://www.harvestabledesigns.com/resources/PDFS_of_designs/QUT_Projects/QUT_Projects_security/MCBRYDE_1_DLB420_16_A.pdf

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix 1

pH

Group

Site/hole

Longitude

Latitude

Horizon

Depth cm

Texture

Munsell

pH

Tuesday Green

1

153.04807

-27.550238

O

5

silty clay

5B 2/2

4.44

Tuesday Green

1

153.04807

-27.550238

A

10

sandy loam

10YR 4/2

4.23

Tuesday Green

1

153.04807

-27.550238

B

25

loamy sand

5YR 3/8

4.07

Tuesday Green

1

153.04807

-27.550238

B

40

loamy clay

5YR 4/9

4.07

Tuesday Green

2

153.04779

-27.550297

O

5

silty clay

5BG 2/2

3.89

Tuesday Green

2

153.04779

-27.550297

A

10

clayey sand

5YR 4/1

4.17

Tuesday Green

2

153.04779

-27.550297

A

25

sandy clay loam

5Y 4/4

3.97

Tuesday Green

2

153.04779

-27.550297

B

45

sandy clay loam

5YR 3/8

3.97

Tuesday Green

3

153.0475

-27.550318

O

10

silty clay

2.5GY 1/2

4.56

Tuesday Green

3

153.0475

-27.550318

A

15

loamy sand

10YR 8/2

4.33

Tuesday Green

3

153.0475

-27.550318

B

25

clay loam

10R 3/4

4.21

Tuesday Green

3

153.0475

-27.550318

C

55

clayey loam

10R 5/6

4.08

Tuesday Green

4

153.04727

-27.55031

O

5

silty loam

2.5G 1/1

4.59

Tuesday Green

4

153.04727

-27.55031

A

10

sandy clay

5YR 7/1

4.22

Tuesday Green

4

153.04727

-27.55031

B

25

sandy clay loam

2.5YR 8/3

4.17

Tuesday Green

4

153.04727

-27.55031

C

50

Sandy loam

5YR 8/1

3.89

Tuesday Green

5

153.047

-27.550277

O

10

silty clay loam

2.5B 1/1

3.90

Tuesday Green

5

153.047

-27.550277

A

25

sandy clay

5YR 5/5

4.32

Tuesday Green

5

153.047

-27.550277

B

40

loam

2.5Y 8/2

4.13

Tuesday Green

5

153.047

-27.550277

C

50

clayey loam

5YR 6/5

3.96

 

 

Appendix 2

 

Carbonate, Organic matter, Moisture factor

Group

Site/hole

GMC %

Organic matter %

Carbonate C %

Moisture factor

Tuesday Green

1

85

46

0.01

1.045

Tuesday Green

1

65

22

0.03

1.001

Tuesday Green

1

37

13

0.02

1.014

Tuesday Green

1

15

7

0.01

1.011

Tuesday Green

2

78

28

0

1.024

Tuesday Green

2

56

6

0.01

1.021

Tuesday Green

2

65

8

0.01

1.059

Tuesday Green

2

27

11

0.02

1.012

Tuesday Green

3

85

55

0.03

1.036

Tuesday Green

3

54

29

0.01

1.007

Tuesday Green

3

25

17

0

1.008

Tuesday Green

3

26

12

0.02

1.002

Tuesday Green

4

49

36

0.07

1.026

Tuesday Green

4

28

12

0.02

1.005

Tuesday Green

4

15

9

0.02

1.003

Tuesday Green

4

18

6

0.02

1.007

Tuesday Green

5

49

22

0.01

1.018

Tuesday Green

5

16

13

0.03

1.009

Tuesday Green

5

13

5

0.01

1.008

Tuesday Green

5

7

2

0.02

1.006

Appendix 3

Particle size Distribution

 

Appendix 4:

A

 

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    $40.00Per 30 min.
  • Quality Check

    $25.00
  • Total

    Free
  • Let's Start