Leadership has a direct impact on the success and failure of the organization
Date: 23rd May 2020
Leadership styles have an important, direct influence on the performance and growth of companies. The roles of leaders are centered around defining beliefs, goals, and the morale of the employees. Multiple leadership styles such as transformational, transactional, and motivational have been examined in this study. A study of the literature identified many analytical businesses. Leadership is among the primary factors connected with any organization's success and failure. A manner in which a leader guides people and motivates them to achieve organizational goals is known as a leadership style. This study examines the impact of leadership on the performance of the organization. For this paper, the interpretivism research paradigm along with exploratory design have been chosen. The research approach used for this study is the inductive approach. This study has been done using primary research using a telephonic interview method of collecting data from a Principal of a school. Structure interview questions were used for interviewing the principal. The sampling technique used in this research is the purpose of sampling techniques. The data gathered has been analyzed against the literature review conducted for this research and meaningful discussions have been evaluated. Findings have suggested that the leadership style does have an impact on organizational performance. The paper suggests undertaking a much deeper analysis of the subject to arrive at a standardized finding that can be used to follow the leadership style in specific work environments. From the findings and results sections it was concluded that while the principal adopts various styles of leadership in different circumstances, the most prevalent type of leadership adopted by the principal is the type of democracy.
Leadership is defined as a mechanism in which one or more individuals control a group of individuals to progress in a particular order. In various aspects of human activities such as politics, business, education, and community services, the term leadership is being used. Messick and Krammer (2004) have stated that not only the characteristics and personal skills but also the characteristics of the circumstance and atmosphere within which the individual finds himself or herself are determinant to the degree to which each individual shows leadership attributes. Consequently, an individual would help the organization when s/he feels that his personal goal and objectives will be achieved through it if not, the involvement of the individual will decrease. Leadership is said to occur if one member of the group improves the motivation or competency of those within the group. Nongo (2009) argues that leadership implies an unfair distribution of power among leaders and members of groups. Members of the team have authority, but often the leaders have a much more significant effect, power, and authority. According to Sayal (2020), leadership is particularly applicable to practice when individuals are involved in.
Many organizations have collapsed in a situation due to the inadequate leadership style of such company and institution's management team, the workforce is not well trained, managed or structured, the result of this mentality is attributed to inadequate leadership style, low efficiency, high running costs, unresponsive behavior of the employees and so forth. All of these in the long run lead to the organization's closure. Some organizations, which have character, expertise, intelligence, and experience to lead, face the problem of sourcing competent leaders. There are numerous leadership styles but the transformative leadership, transactional leadership, and laissez-faire leadership style are considered for this study. The model of transformation leadership is more effective, successful, creative, and rewarding to followers as all parties collaborate for the organization's benefit which is being motivated by common goals and principles, as well as shared confidence and respect. Effective leadership is viewed as a creative approach to align workers into the organization to accomplish a mission or objectives, and to a large degree a leader 's success relies primarily on the approaches embraced by subordinates that s/he believes are essential to organizational management. Therefore, it is often noted that an organization's loss or performance impacts the employees, clients, and organizations within and outside the company. According to Bojadziev et al ( 2016), leadership is one of the main determinants of every business, organization, or nation's positive progress. To Zhang et al. ( 2015), leadership makes the difference between progress and failure, between benefit and loss, between any company, country, or business growing and underdeveloping. Wang et al. ( 2014), notes that leadership is a mechanism of control. There's even a fourth form of leadership that only expresses itself in any experience of leadership. This is termed the style of charismatic leadership. Transactional and transformational leadership models are the two modern leadership styles (Sajjadi et al . 2014). Private schools appear to be more autocratic in the school setting while the public schools are roughly based on Laissez-faire styles of leadership. Also, the private school heads are better in performance in terms of human relation patterns, decision making patterns, supervision, and communication pattern than public school heads who are less concerned in these areas.
Managing people is certainly part of the leadership process in organizations. Managers should, therefore, realize that people in organizations are the critical elements and that they should be recognized as being synonymous with the organization. But the question is to what degree should managers accept this reality that workers are associated with companies and should be sufficiently driven to ensure a highly credited performance? Once more, the leadership behavior patterns or styles in most organizations, that believe that workers can be treated anyhow as a consequence of the country's unemployment situation that makes it difficult to switch jobs has resulted in the hardship workers facing in their workplaces. This leads usually to poor performance. Poor leadership is expensive, under the watchful eye of poor leaders and managers, employee morale beings to diminish, and workers feel less committed to the organization and its mission, which tends to lead to lesser-quality work and more slowly doing things. Poor style of leadership can stop the management from identifying business opportunities and solving problems. Of all these, the main cause of declining standard education was the poor leadership style of the principals, something that warrants this study's investigation.
The objective of this paper is to analyze and determine the impact of leadership on organizational performance.
Leadership is the act of inspiring others to actively work with trust towards an organizational objective. Leadership is commonly defined simply as the process of influencing people to guide their efforts toward achieving certain particular goals or objectives. Leadership can be described merely as the ability of influencing people in such a way that they willingly strive to achieve group objectives. This idea can be broadened to also include not only the desire to cooperate but also enthusiasm and trust. Leadership is a word that refers to a range of items, individuals, positions, or processes (Day et al. 2014). Mullins (2002), says there are more than 400 leadership concepts. As leadership is so extensively written upon that subject, many scholars seek to equate their interpretations as leadership by a variety of definitions Singh et al. (2012), have acknowledged rightly that leadership is the world's most observed phenomenon and the least understood. For this analysis, therefore, few are considered.
Leadership for good project management is one of the most important and crucial factors. The ability to influence others to achieve the desired results can be seen as leadership. Leaders guide behavior through vision, direction, and key processes; in other words, management has a large impact, including the activities of others, over the whole of the project process. Leadership can also be seen as a precondition for any human endeavor and Muijs (2011) confirms this as he relates leadership to the main aspect of organizational effectiveness. Muijs (2011 ) says that leadership is the key factor that has made private companies more successful than the public. The outcome is therefore that leadership is the process of achieving goals through voluntary participation of others. The most significant of the leaders who have a positive relation to supporters' job satisfaction and performance is their influential personality. Leadership as the process through which someone known as the leader is committed to directing people's activities to achieve their pre-determined objectives. Leadership is one of the core aspects of management. The importance of successful leadership in every country's history and at the local level on the part of every organization is dramatically demonstrated over and over again. The company is in trouble without good management. Therefore, for the objectives of education to be achieved, the role of the principal as a leader in the school environment is essential. The emphasis of this concept is that people are ideally encouraged not only to work happily but also to work with great confidence. More specifically, leading was often interpreted to use authority as an attribute of place, personal experience, or expertise in decision-making. Hairon and Goh (2015) defined leadership as a process of social influence, which aims to involve subordinates voluntarily to achieve organizational goals. Similarly, Hopkins et al. (2014) have defined leadership in situations and in communications as an interpersonal influence for achieving specific objectives and goals. Covin & Slevin (2017) defined leadership as a process to influence and lead an organized group to achieve its objectives in this group. He views this as the use of non - confrontational impact in shaping a group's goals, motivating the conduct of those goals, and aiding in defining a group or organizational structure. Leadership as a property is seen as a collection of features attributed to individuals who are seen as leaders.
The task of a leader in an organization is to help define meaningless objectives, to establish appropriate strategies to achieve these objectives and to give the community direction and encouragement to achieve accepted goals. The leader must identify the value system operating in a variety of working groups (Anderson and Sun 2017). Users need to listen to and answer questions. To understand the fear, the leader must understand the difficulty of being a subordinate. Black (2015) has mentioned that a successful leader must have certain attributes to improve an organization's affairs; some of them are:
Performance after exercising (Sethibe and Steyn 2015) has been described as the work level for a person. Osabiya (2015) also presents Cummings and Schwab 's views on this same issue, which they believed that performance is ultimately an individual phenomenon with environmental variables that primarily influence performance by their impact on performance and motivation individual determinants. Besides, it is widely accepted that effective organizations, in direct proportion to the overlook of this, need effective leadership and organizational performance. With this in mind, the connection between high performance and leadership in the USA has been confirmed by the development of a model of charismatic/transformations leadership that says leaders' conduct inspires, awe and empowers these subordinates, which leads to exceptionally high efforts, exceptionally high commitment and willingness to take risks (Mhatre and Riggio 2014).
Research methodology is referred to as the techniques or procedures that are employed by a researcher where it helps in determining, selecting, and further analyzing information and data on the specific topic. The research methodology concerning research would employ some of the key concepts that include the research approach, research philosophy, research analysis techniques along with which it would also specify how data would be collected (Kumar, 2019). The research methodology would also specify the research design and also the sampling techniques used.
Research design highlights how the data would be collected, measured, and further be analyzed. In this respect, there are two major types of research designs which are: exploratory research design is the one which is undertaken to discover new ideas instead of working on the collection of the statistical data and descriptive research design is the one which is undertaken to describe the case or situation that is a part of the study, the research design is based on the application of theory to gather and analyze data (Flick, 2015). The exploratory research design for this research study would be as would help determine the views of a principal on the leadership style adopted by him or the management in the management of the school and being responsible for its success.
The research approach can be defined as the plan that specifies the broad assumptions that are to be taken in the research. There are two major types of research approaches that include the deductive approach which aims to explore a phenomenon, test or theory so as it determines whether or not the theory applies to the specific circumstance in the research and the inductive approach which the researcher moves to a theory by the use of data that is collected as a part of the study. An inductive approach would be more suitable for this study as the data is collected for aligning the theories related to the topic.
In addition to this the research philosophy is the belief as held in the manner data is gathered and further analyzed to make it useful for the research. Two types of research philosophy include positivism, in which the quantifiable observations are noted and used in the research for social sciences or related researches, and interpretivism, which is used to highlight the difference that exists between social actors and humans (Fletcher, 2017). This research is based on interpretivism philosophy.
The data collection method used for this paper is primary data which is collected by using interviews as the data collection method. Data collection is defined as the process that would be employed to gather crucial data on the topic to undertake research (Humphries, 2017). The advantage of using interviews as the data collection method is that it is useful in obtaining detailed information about personal feelings, perceptions, and opinions. The Sampling technique used for this research is purpose sampling as one interviewee was selected for obtaining the answers.
NAME OF THE SCHOOL IN YOUR AREA, vision is to develop confident, responsible and well-rounded individuals who become productive global citizens by aspiring to achieve their full potential. This vision is aimed to be accomplished by providing a welcoming, safe, and supportive educational environment which does not only promote diversity but also celebrates the smallest victory of their students and teachers. The core values of this school are cooperation: for learning and sharing, achievement: be persistent in the work and give your best performance, respect: each other, society, culture and the environment, and empathy: showing care, concern, and compassion while treating other people.
A telephonic interview was conducted with the principal of the school. Few questions were asked over 20-25 minutes, only after ensuring that the principal was available and was not in a haste to complete the interview. The aim of the study, to understand the impact of his leadership on the success of the educational center, was communicated to him and the interview started only after he gave his consent.
The principal in the interview had stated that multiple reasons were contributing to the success of the organization: few reasons were to be able to productively communicate with the staff and the students, ensuring that the inadequacies were dealt promptly without hampering the efficiency and productivity, staff development by providing training and development programs on various managerial subjects for better functioning of the classes and motivation of the teachers for giving their best for highest productivity of the students.
Further when delved deeper into the staff motivation, the principal had stated that few steps were regularly and continuously taken for the development of the environment which encouraged the teachers to give their best for enhancing the reputation of the school and ensuring that the highest motivation. Steps such as:
The ability to build relationships is essential for the success of an educational institution be it with the staff members or the parents, on being asked how did he build a relationship with the staff, he stated that he understands the importance of building a relationship, thus he ensures that a clear direction is set, objectives and the desired outcomes are known, all the relevant information is shared with the staff members, he took special efforts in providing regular and periodic feedback to the staff members, and encouraged communication within the institution and sharing of issues so that they can be resolved and staff can be productive in their work.
Furthermore, he was asked if he had undertaken professional development activities recently; for which he answered that he has been involved in the attending online seminars on enhancing the productivity of the educational institutions, online seminars on enhancing the leadership qualities.
He was also asked, as the principal how was he able to handle the complex situations which might have been sensitive at that time. He had gently answered that there have been multiple times when he had to experience a difficult situation. He had had experiences with the situation which have been volatile and sensitive. One example which was shared by him was he resolved a heated dispute between a student and a teacher by listening to their stories unbiasedly and then taking the decision.
He was also asked, what would he do if the teachers in his school complained about having no support from the administration. He answered by stating that he understood what it is being a teacher, thus he would ensure the situation doesn’t arise by always being approachable, able to lend a helping ear, and communicable to them. He also added that he knew being in the administrative is tricky and he will face a lot of complex situation, thus while taking responsibility as the principal he had braced himself to face such difficult situations and look for possible solutions for helping the staff members.
The researcher also asked the principal, when handling difficult students, when did he involve the parents. He stated an efficient principal can handle the teachers and difficult students, and also know the right time for involving parents in the issues regarding their children. Additionally, he further stated that according to the policies of the school, he can understand the seriousness of the issue which requires parental interventions.
He was asked that as the principal, he would be witnessing incoming and recruitment of new teachers, how did he ensure the success of the class? And what practical advice did he render to the new teachers? He stated that it is the prime responsibility of the principal to ensure that the new teacher is comfortable and had been inducted well into the new environment so that they do not get intimidated by the new rules, policies, code of conduct, and to also ensure that teacher attrition is low. He also added, that he provided adequate classroom management tips to the teacher and suggested the responsible staff to contact if they faced any issue with their curriculum, and if the respected staff member were busy, he always suggested to approach him for any suggestion and guidance.
He was also asked, according to him, how effective he has been since him taking over the role of the principal of the school. He stated merrily that, since he has been the principal, the overall performance of the school has improved, the curriculums are completed in time, the teacher turnover ratio has significantly reduced, activities are recorded and implemented thoroughly, teachers do not face a lot of issues in their tasks, the overall work environment in the school is productive, challenging and enjoyable. He also stated that teachers have come to him and rejoiced that they have never felt more productive in their careers.
At last, his perception of the qualities of an efficient principal was asked. To this, he stated, according to him:
An interview is usually a methodology for qualitative learning, which involves asking open questions and collecting detailed information on the topic. The interviews enable the investigator to understand, explain, and explore the opinions, actions, perceptions, and developments of the fields of research. This research interview was conducted by telephone. Unlike other interviews or survey practices, telephone interviews can be conducted in a relatively economic manner to gather information from any geographical location.
As previously stated, successful management is seen as a means for connecting employees with the mission and goals of the organization, and its effectiveness depends mainly on management styles that are said to be essential for the effectiveness of the organization.
The data were thoroughly analyzed to test the leadership styles in the school. The data show that the principal must be different according to different situations, that he is a supervisor and manager, a teacher, an educational leader, a curriculum leader, and a leader, has to act at different times a day, can be shared at derived from that. (Day 2014). His response to the factors that contribute to the organization's success has shown that he knows how to lead an organization and has adopted a democratic leadership approach. A participatory leader's main focus is democracy. This type of leader gets the team's ideas to make the most acceptable decision (Beerbohm 2015). While responding to the autonomy of the teachers, he adopted a laissez-faire approach to leadership Literally "let-do" in French is laisser-faire. This kind of management allows their team to follow their intuition. Leaders who use this kind of leadership are extremely supportive and delegate the majority of decisions to the team (Skogstad et al. 2014). On the other side, he responded that staff members had taken a democratic leadership approach in the decision-making process. It is possible to assess that all the responses the principal gaveled him to understand that he was an efficient leader.
The leaders are primarily involved in three kinds of roles: social, professional, and decision-making. They have been designated as interpersonal, informational, and decisive roles (Alam 2017). The leader motivates, directs, and evaluates employee performance in an interpersonal capacity. The chief controls and distributes the information at the knowledge point. The leader leads as a resource allocator, conflict manager, trouble managers, and negotiator at the decisional level. And these positions in the gathered data were clear.
In addition to different styles based on needs, the democratic leadership style seemed to dominate both data, particularly as per the experiences of the school principal. It shows that the leader mainly performs his roles with a democratic leadership style. The key thing about development changes in schools by a democratic process is to agree on the actions required. It endorses the fact that the school observes a culture of harmony between all the stakeholders and that everyone has the option of providing their suggestions.
Many of the sample discussions with the principal revealed that democratic leadership applied to school teaching and learning processes usually seems to be having a positive effect (Al-Safran et al. 2014). One of the advantages was that the objectives appeared to be completed in time, effectively and efficiently. Once the job scheme was identified, the assignments were performed in due course and the school created an adequate system to report on the activities that were carried out. The teacher was assigned the tasks by consent and consultation and thus faced less to no problems at all in performing the assigned task. They will complete a timely and efficient syllabus and perform other activities in due course. It was observed that there was a favorable work environment in the school and there is a little disparity between teachers and the principal.
He demonstrated to be an inspiring leader in his response when he said he had been involved in the training and development programs for which he said he had been attending online workshops and seminars. An inspiring leader encourages the team to believe in a shared dream through his acts and speech. A true leader is in a position to inspire workers to believe in a shared vision, increase their dedication and encouragement to their work (Körösényi and Patkós 2017). His reply to the importance of building relations with the teachers and parents demonstrated he followed the theory of relationship management. This definition defines a leader who is inspired mainly by and conscientious about his interactions with other people. Leaders oriented towards relationships often serve as guides to their team members. They make appointments for discussions with staff and integrate their suggestions into decision making (Wakabi 2016). Besides, teachers seemed to have a sense of belonging to the planned activities due to involvement in decision-making processes.
The principal 's response, that the teachers came and told him they've never been so inspired in their career, indicates that teachers are motivated and there are fewer chances of any political environment within the school operations. Consequently, being in a shared-culture, the communication process seemed to have a small or no gap. The principal has always been open for discussion with educators and prefers applying their suggestions in decision-making processes. Furthermore, it can be said that if channels of communication are free and open and a cooperative culture has been developed among different stakeholders of the school, the student's achievement always remains at higher levels.
There have been some occasions when the principal has used styles of transformation, transactional, and autocratic leadership. It depends on the complexity of the activities and nature of the problem relating to the school's overall functioning. Nevertheless, when comparing the information collected from the interview, the democratic style of leadership was very obvious. This approach, however, has had a significant influence on the school's overall structure and community, but this form of leadership is not free of challenges. The information shared by the principal demonstrates that he needed more time to make decisions, as he had to consult with all the teachers when making decisions. Thus delayed decision-making can result in delayed results. Some academic findings support these claims that democratic models can often be less efficient and time-consuming for complex problems (Alam 2017). Similarly, since this approach applies a mechanism of sharing by all stakeholders, all ideas may not be adjusted when making decisions. Principal or teachers may contradict the ideas shared while in a decision-making meeting, and often may be denied. Therefore, teachers can feel alone, as their idea has been ignored. However, this proves that the leadership has an impact on the performance of the organization.
The study concludes that the principal 's role is of primary importance, and the styles of leadership have a direct impact on organizational performance. The study 's objective was to analyze the consequences of leadership on the organization's performance, it is perfectly articulated that leadership is an essential element in the employees' positive performance, which in turn affects the efficiency of the organization. It has also been comprehended from the study that providing opportunities for employees, provides a sense of belonging, and enabling them to participate in decisions is essential to a style of leadership. It is recommended in this context that for improving the overall performance of the organization the management should be involved in using different leadership styles according to the situation.
The study findings can be used to strengthen the processes of leadership and to achieve greater performance. Additionally, various approaches can be implemented to build a collaborative and mutual culture to strengthen the cultures of the schools as a whole. In this regard, and to authenticate the results of this study, more comparative case studies can be performed to generate the richer data, so that a clearer picture can be developed for the systems working in the field of education.
Evidence from this research shows that formal interviews help recognize leaders who influence their subordinates positively. This research is not without any limitation, an important limitation which can be identified is that the study was conducted by interviewing one principal in the area, few other principals could also be interviewed and their responses could be studied for having a generalized result which could be applied for all the schools. It is recommended to have further study for authenticating the results and findings of this research.
The present study can be perceived as a promising starting point for interlinking the directions of interview research and leadership research. More diversity in the evaluation of leadership style concepts can generally allow for a much more diverse awareness of how and why leaders conduct themselves.
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Interview Schedule for the telephonic interview scheduled for the Principal of School(Name).
1. What are the reasons which have contributed to the success of the school?
2. What steps do you take to motivate your staff?
3. What were the relationship building strategies that are adopted by you for building successful relationships with your staff considering building relationships with the staff and the parents is the success element for an educational institution?
4. Have you undertaken any professional development activities recently? Which one?
5. Being the school principal, you must have had to handle sensitive situations from time to time How were you able you to do that?
6. What would you do, if you ever received a complaint from your teacher that the administrative support is negligible in the school?
7. How do you decide, that it is the right time to involve the parents while handling difficult students?
8. How do you ensure that the new teachers are able to conduct classes successfully?
9. What are your perceptions regarding your effectiveness as a principal since you resumed your responsibility as one, in this school?
10. What do you think are the qualities of a principal which makes him an efficient leader?
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