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Nanomedicine mediated therapy: The future of cancer

 

 

 

Nanomedicine mediated therapy: The future of cancer

Introduction

Cancer is a life-threatening disease and has become the most commonly found disease across the world. Chemotherapy, Surgery, and Radiotherapies are the conventional approaches that have been used in cancer therapy. The main purpose of cancer therapies is to stop cancerous cells from invading the normal cells, halt the multiplication of cancerous cells, and to cut the tumors out (Roy & Saikia, 2016). Applications of nanotechnology in manufacturing of cancer drugs has emerged as a ray of hope in cancer treatment as the side-effects of nanomedicines are less than any of the conventional therapies, Anti-cancer medicines prepared with the help of different nanosystems are useful in targeted drug delivery and act on cancerous cell and do not affect the normal cells with high drug efficacy, low systemic toxicity, and high specificity. However, micellar and liposomal cytostatics or albumin-based nanoparticles show more efficiency and fewer side effects in cancer treatment and not only in treatment but also in the diagnosis of cancer at an early stage. (Kopeckova, K., et al., 2019).

 

Scope

Conventional cancer therapies shows adverse effect on patients, among which Chemotherapy is the most common treatment that shows therapy-induced side effects and affect the healthy cells; apart from hair loss, bone marrow suppression, and skin disorders, there are some threatening side effects such as cardiotoxicity and pulmonary toxicity that may give rise to other diseases (Chan & Ismail, 2014). For early detection of cancerous cells and their eradication with fewer side effects before they make clusters of cancerous cells or tumors and invade other tissues and affect them, nano-based therapies have a wide scope. Also, Nanomedicines decreases the rate of risk and increases the survival rate of the patient.

 

Aim

The main objective of this study is to understand the usefulness of nano therapy in the      treatment of cancer.

  • To study how nanodrugs can be the future of cancer treatment
  • To control the rate of risk in cancer patients.
  • To reduce the side effects of cancer treatment.

 

Research Question

The conventional therapies have multiple side effects that affect the patients physically as well as mentally.

Why nanomedicine based therapy is the future of cancer treatment?

 

Significance

Due to high efficacy in penetration, high specificity in retention, and targeted eradication of cancerous cells to cure the cancer, nanotechnology has emerged out as an ideal technology to treat the cancer. Nanocarriers are biodegradable and biocompatible in nature and it has been reported that therapeutic drugs which comprises of various peptides, proteins, hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs, nucleic acids, and probes incorporated with nanocarriers directly targets the infected cell because of enhanced permeability and retention effect; multiple drugs can also be delivered at the same time without affecting the path and healthy cells. (Singh, Saini & Chandra, 2017).

 

Literature review

According to Shi, Kantoff, Wooster, and Farokhzad (2017), the ingrained limitations of conventional or traditional cancer therapies evoke the evolution and applications of nanomedicines for more effective, and safe with fewer side effects treatment of cancer. However, Multidrug resistance is an obstacle in chemotherapy and with the help of different type of nanoparticles such as polymeric, magnetic, mesosporous silica, albumin-based, and lipid nanoparticles this can be mananged. Nanomaterials that serves as drug carriers are termed as nano carriers, because of its tiny size it can easily reach the remote areas and penetrate through the cell surface. Drug is incorporated into the nanosphere or get attached to the nanomaterial with the help of ligand, this help the drug from degradation and deliver it to the target site. (Sebastian, 2017). Lipid nanosystems are also being used in the treatment it  includes liposomes, emulsions, and solid-lipid based nanoparticles. These nanosystems helps in the modulation of loaded drugs and for physical stability. Administration can be done by various routes which makes it vulnerable. Apart from emulsifiers that are subjected to toxicity other lipid nanosystems have been accredited and are under clinical trials (Kopeckova, K., et al., 2019). For improving the performance of nanomedicines, Nanocarrier engineering is an effective technique. With the help of nanocarrier engineering, nanomedicines invades into the tumor and exploits the exo and endo stimuli andtend to trigger the drug release within the tumor. The targets belonging to immune system can also be eradicated if a combined therapy of immunotherapy with nanomedicine is given to the patient. Efficacy of nanomedicine can also be enhanced by companion diagnostic stratifying the patients based on the characterstics shown by the cancerous cells. Monitoring the whole process is also an important aspect of treatment,usage of  radio-labelled nanocarriers is a non- invasive technique to monitor the whole process. Various studies have been reported that how oncologic patients have been benefited with nano drug based therapies in their treatment (Salvioni, et al. 2019).

 

 

Methodology

In this study we will be focussing on the importance of nano medicines and how the use of them in cancer therapy is better than the conventional methods. The positivist approach is preferred in this study  as it relies on the validation of the idea by conducting multiple clinical trials then formulating the results which are supported by the facts and figures obtained (Park, Konge & Artino, 2019). The research design for this particular study has to be descriptive as it includes analysis of the current situation regarding the issue raised and its relation with the social structure and social situation. The research approach followed is the deductive approach as it includes analysis of pre existing theory then the formation of hypothesis and after analysis of data, we can predict the outcome. The ethical consideration should be our foremost priority and in this study have provided all the credit to the original data that have been included in this and the participant identity & demographic is kept confidential. The point that can limit our study can be that quantitative process is quite complex and require good knowledge of tool that is quite difficult and it also requires large time to collect the data so it becomes expensive. It must be unable to explain the complex issue (Almeida, Faria & Queirós, 2017).

Conclusion

 By the study process we can conclude that advance therapies based on nanmedicines are better than conventional therapies and It is the future of the cancer treatment because of it vulnerability of applications that can be used in treatment of different types of cancer.

 

Gantt Chart

 

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Background

 

         

Aim & Objectives

 

         

Research Questions

 

 

       

Scope

 

 

       

Significance

 

 

       

Literature Review

 

 

 

     

Research Methodology

   

 

 

   

Cconclusion

   

 

 

 

 
             

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reference

Roy, P. S. & Saikia, B. J. (2016). Cancer and cure: A critical analysis. Indian Journal of Cancer, 53(3), 441-442.

Kopeckova, K., Eckschlager, T., Sirc, J., Hobzova, R., Plch, J., Hrabeta, J., & Michalek, J. (2019). Nanodrugs used in cancer therapy. Biomedical Papers, 163(2), 122-131.

Chan, H. K. & Ismail, S. (2014). Side effects of Chemotherapy among Cancer patients in a Malaysian general hospital: Experiences, perceptions and informational needs from Clinical Pharmacist. Asian Pac J Cancer, 15(13), 5305-5309.

Singh, V. K., Saini, A. & Chandra, R. (2017). The implications and future perspectives of Nanomedicine for cancer stem cell targeted therapies. Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences, 4(52). doi: 10.3389/fmolb.2017.00052.

Shi, J., Kantoff, P. W., Wooster, R., & Farokhzad, O. C. (2017). Cancer nanomedicine: progress, challenges and opportunities. Nature reviews: Cancer17(1), 20–37. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrc.2016.108

Kopeckova, K., Eckschlager, T., Sirc, J., Hobzova, R., Plch, J., Hrabeta, J., & Michalek, J. (2019). Nanodrugs used in cancer therapy. Biomedical Papers, 163(2), 122-131.

Salvioni, L., Rizzuto, M. A., Bertolini, J. A., Pandolfi , L., Colombo, M., & Prosperi, D. (2019). Thirty years of Cancer Nanomedicine: Success, Frustration, and Hope. Cancers 201911(12), 1855.

Park, Y. S., Konge, L., & Artino, A.R. (2019). The positivism paradigm of research. Academic Medicine, 1, 1-12. 

Almeida, F., Faria, D & Queirós, A. (2017). Strengths and limitations of qualitative and quantitative research methods. European Journal of Education Studies. 3. 369 387. 

 

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