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What is the significance of Bojack Horseman as a TV show?) What is the significance of the anti-hero concept?

Introduction where the broad terms of the dissertation are outlined. 700 Hrittika

The thesis paper written should contain the main point or the central message. The arguments that are made in the paper must have the reflection of the main paper. The sentences that capture the main idea are called thesis statements. The thesis statement focuses on the idea of more than one statement. It presents the topic of the paper and also specifies about the position related to the topic. The thesis statement should tell the reader about the paper and also guide them by writing and focusing on the arguments. In order to make a successful thesis then burying the thesis statement in the mid or the later part of the paragraph is avoided, vague words are avoided and the statements are very clear and specifica and lastly the indication in the paper about the topic of the thesis should be clear. The thesis which is very much effective should not be answered in just no or yes. A thesis is neither a topic, nor an opinion, nor a fact. There are two parts that a good thesis contains. It must portray the plan of the writer and it should clearly justify the argument in the plan. This is how the support is done in the argument of the thesis statement. There are certain steps followed while writing the thesis statement like analyzing the primary sources, writing down the relevant sources, the thesis should be prominent in the introductory part and anticipation of the counterarguments. 

In this thesis paper the discussion is on the anti hero aspects. The dark side of the anti-hero's personality is made up of psychopathy and narcissism. In spite of the common beliefs regarding the traits to be undesirable, the media is acquainted with the character that dignifies the personality of an anti-hero. As an entertaining piece, these characters provide a portrait of the dark side to the readers or the viewers. Instead of showing the human's dark side as maladaptive, it provides an opposite view that can confer survival and reproductive benefits to the individuals. As a result, the review on the research on the traits of dark triad provides a theoretical aspect on conferring few positive benefits. This concept of dark triads is increasinonfictionalngly becoming popular among other constellations of traits. People who configure these traits, are quite familiar with fictional as well as nonfictional movies or shows. In these thesis some examples have been utilized to provide a framework for the better understanding of the Dark Triad and also to demonstrate all those who embody these characters all around the world. This  review provides perception to laymans and researchers who want to realise the views of cads, misanthropes and bad boys. These traits are correlated and linked with disagreeableness, aggressiveness, numerous indicators of short-term mating and dishonesty. Although the women characters are highly spotted in the dark triad traits, as a result they suffer from serious consequences compared to men for pursuing a swift life strategy. Approaching for such violence in life pursues many problems in the life of women than men as it is believed they are inferior to men. The anti-hero characters may commonly confirm negative roles in the scene of the movie. It seems there is no possibility for the associated movies to make it to the mainstream audiences if the female character violates the role. Although there are possibilities of female examples in the character of antihero, but still it is not claimed to be aware of all the characters in the popular media. In spite of increases in popularity of these dark triad traits, the thesis faces many limitations. Firstly, the samples have been drawn from different countries, having made the findings difficult for generalization. Secondly, because most of these traits are dependent on self-report measures, faces the same shortcoming that restricts the self report findings. Thirdly, the knowledge about the mechanism or process is too less to link the behaviour of these characters with the dark triad traits. There are some issues found in the thesis and restrictions of the relevant information that need to be discussed in the popular culture. The rising or popularity of the characters is predicted as a harsh economic situation. This is because the individuals are unable to react to the swift life strategy like the character of Batman which will provide for the requirement of  some catharsis.

Research question and its relevance. (What is the significance of Bojack Horseman as a TV show?) What is the significance of the anti-hero concept? 1500 Moumita

Bojack Horseman is a kind of fictional label character which was a very popular one on Netflix.  It was an animated series started from 2014 onwards (Saura, 2019). As it is discussed above that Bojack Horseman has a total of 77 episodes.  This show ranked from first in IMDb 8.7 star ratings out of 10.

While speaking about the significance of the Bojack Horseman series, it is important to remember that every character has its own traits, which is sometimes relatable with every individual at any span of time. 

Human character or nature is very subjective and very hard to define it.  Every human is different, having their own process of thoughts, principles and beliefs. Every individual is unique but has the same type of emotions more or less. The list of emotions is very long. Common ones are- cheerfulness, unhappiness, antagonism, misery, terror, isolation etc.  The significance of the TV show is quite relatable to a human being's life or emotion (Saura, 2019).

The fictional label character in Bojack Horseman show, is a cartoon horse who had a perfect family background as said in season four.  The nature of the character became crystal clear by the episodes casting days after days (Ghiara, 2019). As the personal life of Horseman was casting, subscribers or human beings watching that became more acquainted or familiar. It showed that he had depression in his life, he was not happy at all, deadening the pain from his past days, he was not capable of maintaining any kind of relations etc.

These all characters of Horseman somehow brought changes in thoughts, feelings of a human being. Human beings started relating their lives with that cartoon character and also started finding life questions and answers by seeing the series (Ghiara, 2019).  It is one of the main significance of the show that was also described by the producer of the show also. The show gained popularity in Netflix due to its storyline.  The character had a great influence on mankind, and it is quite psychologically natural. Human beings relate those visuals which are closely relatable to their life (Nærland, Torgeir 2019). The significance of the show gained in this segment the most popularity.

Other significance of the show are,

·         The series greatly criticizes the vacuum of post modern humanity. By this series people get to know that modern humanity is emptiness all around (Radcliffe, 2019).  Some episodes of this series showed social eroticization, by attacking the underlying principle of Fukuyamaism.  Therefore people started questioning about individualism, materialism in the society they are in.

·         It also focused on the lavish life of Hollywood  lifestyle and focused on a loneliness journey or life. The stardom only does not give happiness, there is a need for togetherness as well, which is lacking day by day (Radcliffe, 2019).

·         The  series is based on postmodernist personality, as it has shown in the show. It has  sketched the tone of irony and skepticism (Walters, 2020).

·         The series also laid its focal significance on the economic system in modern society and he connoted the term as Large stage Capitalism.

·         Not only this, it also casted another form of individualism which was significant in humans mind. Hyper Individualism was that term, it means that an individual tears the social contact and retreat on his own which leads to estrangement from the so called society which was opposed by Bojack and he led the opposite individualism and acted  immorally to make certain his own comfort and welfare (Walters, 2020). It is very significant to common individuals as well; i.e. total reserve.

·         The next significant trait was hyper reality. It shows that hyper reality brings depression and radical outlook in life. Bojack also faced it too; he became aware of the hyper reality of Hollywood. The fakeness in the world can be understood from this fifth episode of the 3rd season.   Bojack also said that the fakeness of actors in magazines.

·         This reason is significant in Western society, as a process of disneyfication.  In this concept both the animal and animation are presented as a reciprocal of the western cultural society, where happiness comes at the end (Walters, 2020). But this series was an exceptional one.  Bojack thought of a life with relationships and its potential, he started to cohabit with Wanda. And he had anxiety with the love relationship and for the future of the couple. It was true indeed. The life of a living being cannot have a happy ending, it has ups and downs with happiness and sadness which is significantly relatable from this show.

·         In the next part of the show it showed that Bojack broke his existing relationship and not learnt from his previous mistakes and decided to pursue another relationship. but in this relationship he was happy, he wanted to live with Charlotte and her family and also create distance with Hollywood life. It was a plot on anti- densification. Bojack as a character faced  the actual reality that he was dreaming about having a relationship with his desired woman and it came into being. Therefore, it can be said that the actual reality of a human being is harsh, tough in nature and it is not like disneyfication. It has to be faced and to be solved if the problem coexists. This was one of the significant sides of the series and it created a  good effect on human lives.

·         The idea that anybody can accomplish their desiring dreams is not actually true indeed.  In reality, people are mostly restrained by their monetary condition. People use to adjust their dreams or sometimes bring to an end their dreams completely (Walters, 2020).

·         Another important connotation is people are the heroes of their own life stories.  Many people consider it also (De Koster, 2018). But certain researchers do not find it significant, they claim that to be the hero in a life, strong work ethics as well as progress are needed. Some also oppose that, and claim one human being can be the hero of his own life irrespective of any situation.

These three important terms- Hyper Individualism, Hyper reality, Disneyfication or Densification are the main significant parts of the show that boost up the show and increase its publicity through Netflix medium (De Koster, 2018). People started co relating the situation of the horse character that he was going through the seasons and episodes and it became noteworthy in human lives as well. These all are the apex clause to be connoted as the significance of the Bojack Horseman as a TV show.

Anti-hero does not mean villain, this concept is very important to know. Anti-hero is a type of essential character or can be said in a word as a protagonist. in any drama, movie, TV series or story. Generally anti heroes do not have conventional valiant attributes. They have unconventional attributes like dishonesty, defenselessness, lack of confidence, spinelessness etc (Michaels, 2018).  Whereas a villain is a character which casts the evil or wrong doing actions, motions in the plot, and shows the evil protagonist in movies, plays etc.  Although villains also have unconventional attributes, like anti hero but there is a distinction between them and the divergence is that anti-hero characters do not have evil traits like villains.

The significance of anti-hero concept are conceptualized as;

1.       Anti- hero character is not a villain as said earlier, it operates for good only. Maybe it looks like bad or evil in the scene but it is generally good for the being (Michaels, 2018).

2.       If an anti hero character is shown with skills it serves a great purpose. It has the ability to bring spice and flavor to the scene more than the hero-villain concept can bring in a plot.

3.       The idea of using anti-hero scripts or plots in shows is a very secular kind of approach and it shows potentiality in the show more than the usual conventional style.

4.       This anti hero character shows many things at a single time like flaws, human being frailty, and political way of life etc.

5.       An anti-hero character plays  a protagonist role in a play, and is more prominent in nature because it shows the combination of both good and evil (Michaels, 2018). And it does not show a different character of hero and villain. Basically this anti hero concept shows the existing real nature of humanity.

6.       These anti hero protagonists are not beautiful or charming characters like heroes. They are ugly weird in nature, awkward because they represent the astringent truth of the human kind and say those truths for the sake of humanity.

7.       These characters are generally created  to cause misery to individuals or to self. As misery is very much significant in any person's life (Janicke, and Arthur 2018).

8.       Like other heroic stories, where the hero dies or wins it is not the same in the anti-hero storyline. The anti hero protagonists do not need to die to show heroism at the end of the storyline instead there is presence of uncertain resolutions.

9.       In this research Bojack is an anti hero protagonist who is not at all a hero in the story neither he is the villain although the character showed all the real existing traits of human beings, the ups and downs of a life, the failure, hyper individualism etc (Janicke, and Arthur 2018).

There are many anti- hero characters present or have been created by various artists which are indeed more famous than the hero's.  Some of the famous examples are along with Bojack Horseman; Captain Jack Sparrow in Pirates of the Caribbean, Dexter Morgan one of the most famous anti hero characters, Joker is one of the rising anti hero characters now (Janicke, and Arthur 2018). These characters are not the same as Captain America, Thor, The Crow,  Professor X, Batman etc. These anti heros are special and can create those emphasis that heroic characters create with the help of wrong villains.

 

Reference List: MOUMITA

Saura, Raúl Sánchez. "Bojack Horseman, or the exhaustion of postmodernism and the envisioning of a creative way out." Creativity Studies 12.2 (2019): 291-300.

Ghiara, Karinya. "Straight from the Horse’s Mouth: The Struggle for Happiness in Bojack Horseman." A Global Perspective on Friendship and Happiness (2019): 167.

Nærland, Torgeir Uberg. "Fictional entertainment and public connection: Audiences and the everyday use of TV-series." Television & New Media 20.7 (2019): 651-669.

Radcliffe, Gena. "BoJack Horseman Season 6 Review: Once More With Feelings." The Spool (2019).

Walters, Margaret. "Staunch socialism and a hope for a better world." Green Left Weekly 1249 (2020): 19.

De Koster, Lander. Animals and Social Critique in BoJack Horseman. Diss. Ghent University, 2018.

Michaels, Chandler. Netflix & Kill: An Examination of the Anti-hero Through the Lens of Abnormal Psychology. Diss. 2018.

Janicke, Sophie H., and Arthur A. Raney. "Modeling the antihero narrative enjoyment process." Psychology of Popular Media Culture 7.4 (2018): 533.

 

 

 

 

Inform your reader of your preferences. 300 Hrithika

BoJack Horseman was an anthropomorphic animal who continuously tried to bring down the pain of earlier bad behaviors, some with worse. As the show grew its popularity and highlighted many characters, it gave the experience of all types of stories and ideas, but two most crucial parts are associated with its characters. In the last part of the show, BoJack was locked up for breaking and entering the near-fatal bender, following him for a sentence of 14 months so that he can attend the wedding of a former agent and his friend, Princess Carolyn. It might be a disingenuous show for putting the main character in prison for behaving badly but his bittersweet farewell to his protagonist was a goodbye that chose the parts of the series about recovery and addiction at the expense of power and abuse. It is an odd decision that came across when the final season came and builds all over BoJack's actions which was awful in the entire show and portrayed in front of the audience the real world of bad men exposing their character in recent years. One of the overwhelming character,  BoJack Horseman was that it had reminded the audience about the horrific and selfish side of the protagonist that has a negative effect on the people all around him. Although the wedding of Princess Carolyn is a bittersweet episode of finale that reads strangely fond of BoJack. This is not unsympathetic to the victims in the show. By the end of the series, his friend has created a life of her own and it was unsure for the audience whether there will be any room for BoJack or not when his freedom will return back to him. Most of them are his friends for sure, but there are some ghosts of people who cannot stand him and would not like to see him.

Offer a summation of the entire thesis. 500 Shalinee

The thesis revolves around the prevalence of anti-heroic characters and their significance in a particular plotline, with special focus on BoJack Horseman. BoJack Horseman has been hailed as one of the best adult animated series by the critics and has become a classic in today’s generation. It’s social significance has been astounding with today’s youth with whom the flawed character of the anti-hero BoJack horseman has resonated astoundly. Bojack Horseman’s character has been portrayed brilliantly in an anthropomorphic scene where through the genius of screenwriting we are to see the trajectory of a character whose dark side reveals numerous social follies and hypocrisies. The archetypal significance of an anti hero is discussed herein, where we find the importance of these flawed characters on grounds of relatability and realistic depiction. Over the ages the character of an anti-hero has developed in kind and degree but has not lost its significance and there are many such examples available, whom up on comparative analysis with our current case study, i.e, BoJack Horseman will reveal how BoJack is a member of a large club of psychopathic dark characters who are perhaps fighting for their humanity in their own way. The perspective of an anit-hero is also discussed herein, where the scrupulous processes of our magnanimous society is revealed, which we seldom get to see from a morally upright and self-righteous protagonist’s perspective. In today’s era, a morally upright and ethical protagonist is misplaced, and often sheds harsh judgment on the lack of perfection of other characters which in turn makes it impossible for any compassion to exist. The criticism of the show and the society at large lies in the way it deals wh it’s anti-hero.(L De Koster,2018)

 Although the anti-hero is not idolized, he is not discarded either, he is surrounded by the people he cares about and that’s a jarring commentary on the society’s prevalent mentality that abandons social discards and does not contribute to their development or recovery in any way, but is always quick to judge and declare verdict in their lapse. The flawed anti-hero allows for a more open minded plotline, where non-binary non-heteronormative characters can comfortably reside while keeping their uniqueness and not being describe in relation to the binary conformations put forth by the society. Nostalgia and past trauma is an important theme that also looms over the current society, which when seen through the fresh perspective of an anti-hero, gives a newly revealed epiphany, forcing us to look within and without. (KA c,2017)

 

The Science of Screenwriting: The Neuroscience Behind Storytelling Strategies explain the theory of an Estonian origin scientist Jaan Panksepp, if you can include this would be nice. 2000 Hrithika

"Before I Leaped, I Should Have Seen The View From Halfway Down", this quote was enunciated by BoJack as he experienced near-death while drowning in the pool and visioned his known persons who have died. Screenwriting is a very rewarding process, yet not an easy task. It involves a serious dedication and a huge amount of time for developing a good screenplay and if there is a goal of selling it, the completion of the first part is the initial step. The story needs to be refined with several drafts, submitting of scripts to producers and studios, getting hold of an agent and  someone who would take a risk to buy the script at a substantial price.

There are no specific rules or any particular guidelines for writing scripts but there are few steps that are required to follow for writing a good script. Firstly, crafting a logline is required. The logline is the summary of the script, usually less than one sentence containing the description of the goal of the protagonists, their conflict and the antagonists as well. The protagonist is the main character or the hero whereas the antagonist is the negative character or the anti-hero character.

"There Is No Other Side." Almost at the end of the play when most characters have disappeared into darkness, BoJack melancholically tells Herb that they will meet on the other and in respect to that Herb replied the quoted words. "Because He's So Nice, People Don't Want To Think He's Capable Of Awful Things, So They Let Him Off The Hook." This episode is about the allegations for sexual assault against a fictional celebrity named Hank Hippopopalous.

The main aim of logline is to convey the script to both the protagonist and antagonist with the story and its emotional aspects. In older days, the logline was hand printed on the screen of the screenplay which helps the readers to go through the script very quickly and can easily decide whether to invest time in the script or not. The same procedure is followed in recent times as well but the only difference is that the portraying of the script is done verbally and included in some treatment. Antiheroes are considered to be this generation's protagonist as they often say what they are willing to do in a given situation. They do not abide by the regulations and rules of the society that has been created many years ago. The character of an anti-hero indicates the study of evil. The screenwriter portrays the character of anti-heros from both the sides of morality and ethics. The word antiheros implies that the person is heroic yet evil in the eyes of laws. Therefore, the screenwriter plots the character in such a way that by end of the play the character gets praised for his heroism but gets punished by the law for unethical deeds.

The writing of a treatment is implemented of 2-4 pages longer and is the summary that contains the title of the script or the screenplay, the main character list, the logline and a brief synopsis. Same like logline, the treatment is done for the marketing purpose. The producer goes through the treatment before deciding over approving the script. The synopsis must contain the main parts and the turning point of the story. Producers who read the script should get the idea of the story, the style and the character. They should also get the idea of the feelings of empathy for the casted characters and want to involve them in the play and see how it works. The writing of the treatment helps the producers to read the story as a whole and see how it works when placed in the scene of the play and the working versus of the treatment. The treatment must contain the writer's name and contact information as it will be used in the market for screenplay.

The journal of cognitive neuroscience is a newly researched published journal suggests that whatever the expression of the narration be, through drawings, words or gestures, the brains of the readers will get related to the characters focusing on the protagonist's feelings and thoughts in each story. The important question arises from the researcher was how exactly the narrative ideas are portrayed  using different forms of expression and identifying a narrative hub in the brain of the writer. The different expressions are drawing, speech and pantomime which are used for multiple expressive modalities in portraying the narrative ideas. In the case of a writer, when he plots a character in his play he justifies his point of views using the narrative ideas and places it in its respective roles. But in case of a play, having an antihero theme, the writer tries to justify the point of view of the character using the narrative ideas of expression, action and emotion of the hero. This neurological aspect proves the way of thinking of a writer to be somewhat complex, especially for an antihero theme. In addition, the writer thinks from both an ethical and moral side of the antihero character. Jaan Panksepp is known for his work on emotions in animals and naming the term affective neuroscience which investigates the initial process in the mind and brain that drive and enable emotions. Later he considered examinations on electrical stimulation of the brain which results in aggressive behaviour. Optimal development of the brain depends on the healthy lifestyle at a young age, and he further observes that the experience of having a healthy lifestyle involves promotion and nourishment in social learning. In the following analysis, this theory of Jaan Panksepp has been evolved with the theme of an anti-hero and the aspect of the writer gets cleared with the association of this neuro development of the brain and the creation of the narrative ideas. The difference in tradition, practise and method could breed antagonism between two fields. It is because of the differences, neuroscience is able to present the most crucial findings about the covert processes of the brain that can expand through sociological theory. This focus on the cerebral image of human animals yet neuroscience has provided evidence that the capacity of the emotion underlines the implied intelligence of the brain and makes it possible for the brain to portray narrative images and ideas. Emotion is considered to be the central aspect of the human role. By the time, methods for the manipulation of the emotions become refined and the techniques start making sense in the underlying neurobiology which has become even more precise and powerful, which also enables the association of the perceptions in the emotional organization in the brain. But in recent years it has been observed that a sudden debate has arised based on the concerns of principles and facts that has guided and inspired the fields in the past few centuries. Therefore, it is considered the ways of recent neuroimaging research which justifies the dialogs in the play. As writers, they need to go  through the psychological dimensions in parts so as to understand about the characters in the story. The writers get engaged in the psychological writings. To be very precise, they use the narrative voice, to make the storytelling sound more like sensibility unique to those who are reading the story's genre and make these psychological observations.    There are three touchstones which affect the psychological writings such as perspective of the narrator from the point of view of the character, proximity of the character's world and lastly, perception of the internal feeling of the character.

While considering the psychological writing, the writer faces some moments where some psychological dynamic needs to make connection with the reader, there they have to use their perspective, perceptions and proximity to clarify the happenings in the story. In the subsequent analysis it has been observed that there is a deep understanding in the motives of voluntary cooperation. It is discovered that in order to motivate the others, the story must steal the attention of the people and a scarce part in the brain develops a tension during the process of narration. If the story successfully gets the attention of the people it is very likely that the listeners will share and express their emotions of the characters in the story and will continue to mimic the behaviors and feelings of those characters in the story. The research has also proved that the stories are meaningful from the internal organization. The purpose of transcendents gets successful in effective communications through the stories. The researchers found that whatever the format of the story telling be, the participants used the networks of the brain that are activated in the theory of the brain and are affected by the beliefs, actions, motivations and emotion of the character. "You Turn Yourself Around. That's What It's All About", in the finale of the series Todd informs BoJack about rebuilding the relationship again with his mother and by doing so things were going well. This quotation he links with the hidden meaning of "Hokey Pokey" song.

 The researchers hoped the comparative action and narration would determine the happenings in the story based on the portrayal of the character. Storytellings engage not only the feelings of the people but also their intellects. Recent research implies that the falsehood and truth of the story do not necessarily influence the reaction of the people or their appreciation. The storytellers have the freedom of crafting narrations, they can convey the information effectively about the various multivariate components from the experimental results of the behavior of the human in the study of the story. In Spite of the different importance of the stories in daily lives, neuroscience has recently commenced an area of active research on the aspect of neuroscience. The research topic that constantly plays in the mind of the writer or the narrator creates a context in the mental simulations. The pleasure of deriving from engaging with narrative lies evoke the images of the mind. The readers can see what has been described and feel the character's feelings using their own minds to live in the world of fiction.

In the frame of anti-hero mind there was too much to catch up the wisest, emotionally ambitious yet not contradictory for a spectacular series aired on television. In several ways, the original character of the show portrays an awful behavior. The character of BoJack was depressing. He was an alcoholic, he hurt men suffering from cancer, he gave booze to the teens and left someone to die without even helping that person. These are types of wrong deeds he has done and that is why the ghosts of the people cannot tolerate him at all.

The writer skillfully played with the character and implemented the dark theme of a positive character like BoJach Horseman. Artistically, his standard is deceived in society because of his awful behavior with the people. Human nature is very subjective and has a  complex definition since humans are of distinct character; they have their own thought processes, set of core beliefs and principles. The unique individuality of human beings have a set of common emotions, anger, happiness, despair, sadness, insecurity and many more, hence the individual takes time to connect these emotions with  the character in the story. Casting of humour and sadness together characterise a distinct persona of the hero in the story and creates their lives which might be an allusion to the ordinary people who are reading the story. This statement clarifies the researcher's doubts on the difference of the writer and the ordinary people's narrative ideas in portraying an illusive character like BoJack Horseman. Extra ordinary yet understandable in the fidelity of the show beginning the final series with the same ending in the earlier series. But it is one of the most interesting deconstructions which sow dissatisfaction and complacency in our imperfect lives that we lead. In every season BoJack was found making several catastrophic mistakes and subsequently wallowing out of self-pity and self-hatred, gaining crucial perceptions about himself, backsliding badly in spite of striving for betterment because he failed to understand the willingness to make the changes last longer. None of them were the same level as BoJack, even those friends who helped him for so many years could have self-sabotage themselves.

 

 

Comparison in the analysis section between bojack and other anti heros 2000 Shalinee

 

 

Comparison in the analysis section between bojack and other anti heros 2000 Shalinee

 

 

Traditionally when we talk about a hero or a protagonist we have a set of expectations from them. An expectation of being moral and ethical, always thinking of the greater good and any faults and flaws thrown their way are caused due to a minor glitch and not a full-fledged deterioration of character. Maybe that's why we feel heroes to be too unreal and unattainable at times. However, this is not the case with anti-heroes. Anti-heroes are flawed, nitty and gritty and full of raw unprocessed emotions, that makes them hard to idolise, but all the more relatable. In the 21st century, epic heroes who are put on a pedestal hardly have a place, instead we are looking back to the classic anti-heroes who comfort us in our flawed existence. Anti-heroes are hardly a modern concept, there have been examples dating back to the Greeks. Few of these which have made into our daily existence are Don Quixote, a disillusioned knight who charges at windmills trying to save damsels in distress. Like BoJack, Don Quixote too has self centred views about the universe and often has misplaced priorities which takes him into unprecedented problematic situations out of which he can hardly get out. A character that probably set the foundation for BoJack’s lavish lifestyle and “spoiled brat with a heart of gold” character analogy is Christopher Marlowe’s Edward II. Although taken from real life King’s life story, Marlowe’s character has a panache and gusto whose legacy BoJack carry forwards. And like Edward II, BoJack too has a troubled relationship with his girlfriend, Princess Carolyn and has a confused and self-destructive attitude towards life. Bojack Horseman is the classic anti-hero of this era, who symbolises all the flaws and follies of  a man of this century with his caring and kind qualities making him redeemable (Liddy-Judge & Chloe,20[1] [2] 13).

In the string of anti-heroes that literature and Hollywood have presented us, perhaps Gatsby is the only character who gets a position in both, in equal importance. Jay Gatsby is a billionaire who maintains the facade of an enigmatic and charismatic personality, but in reality is an imposter and bootlegger. BoJack too has all the money in the world, finding himself amidst the outrageous Gatsby-like parties, but unlike Gatsby, BoJack’s pretense to be charismatic is overtaken by his crumbling heap of insecurities, and despite his great efforts, BoJack can only be enigmatic to his peers, with his charisma and charm being gone with his youth twenty years ago (?nce & Elif., 2[3] [4] 013).

Don Draper from Mad Men was one of the anti-heroes that were mentioned in the release poster of BoJack Horseman, along with Tony Soprano from The Sopranos and Frank Underwood from  of Cards. And there is no doubt that BoJack and Draper are complete anti-hero brothers. BoJack and Draper have a jarring backstory which changes their personalities forever and continues to hamper their future relations. Draper is narcissistic and believes in his own supreme authority and BoJack too follows in his footsteps. Draper has treated people in his life like disposable garbage and never given them enough credit to open himself up to them, to show his real side to them. Which is what happens to BoJack as well. He has alienated himself or rather feels so alienated from his peers that their unrelatability makes him close up in his shell and not open up even to his closest ones. Following closely we have the favourite notorious troublemaker of the White , Frank Underwood, He is a despicable human being, a person who kills an ailing dog under the pretense of “saving” him from further pain. This narcissistic Saviour Complex and Hero Complex makes Underwood impossible to bear, but his passion and charisma and weak moments of vulnerability humanises him and that's what makes us fall in love with BoJack too. He too has a hero complex, where any rejection or deviation from his wishes is met with severe personal dejection and apathy for the condition of others. But unlike Underwood, BoJack has not yet given up on being a good person at the end of the day. Although, BoJack constantly remarks on what a Sisyphian task it is. Tony Soprano is perhaps one of the few well written characters in the entire TV history that had such a trajectory of character development. He goes from being an invincible untouchable womanising crime lord whose authority is unquestionable to a reclusive isolated vulnerable mafia boss whose authority is now being questioned. However, it’s Tony’s therapy sessions that give us an insight into his justifications and thought processes. BoJack too, like Tony, has a confirmation bias, and only takes away facts from situations that satisfy his prejudices. And in retrospect, Tony's trajectory from swagger crime lord to a pitiable mafia, is kind of BoJack’s fall from glory of that of a rising sitcom star to a drug addict and alcoholic Hollywood has-been. And throughout the series we see the influence of all the three characters mentioned above on BoJack’s character (Vaage & Margrethe Bruun,201[5] 5).

BoJack is absolutely a terrible person, there is’t a shadow of a doubt about it. He makes unpardonable mistakes and cannot often fathom the pain of other people’s existence, and despite his best efforts, finds himself in trouble. This is a characteristic trait that Jesse Pinkman, from Breaking Bad shares with him. Jesse  is a high-school failure, who finds himself selling drugs on the street. But when we get to know of his history, his uncompassionate parents who fail to support him or even understand him. And after his girlfriend's death, with much difficulty does Jesse accept himself, for the mess of a person that he is. BoJack through his series of anxiety attacks and wrong decision finds himself in the same mess as Jesse. But BoJack often fails to rectify himself even after realisation.  Another great anti-hero in the history of television is Walter White, from Breaking Bad as well. After leaving the life of an average overqualified highschool teacher, Walter “ breaks bad” after he is diagnosed with cancer and starts to manufacture meth as a way of providing for his family. Walter has an on-off relationship with his wife Skyler, and is often seen mixing his personal issues with his professional ones. But above all, what BoJack and Walter have in common is the need for self-importance, where they need an elevated position in the cosity and more often than not understand that gap in apparent situation and reality and that becomes a crushing blow on their mental healths (Marek & Andrea,2018). Both Walter and BoJack have been grossly misunderstood by their near and dear ones and that can mostly be attributed to their refusal of sugar coating harsh truths. Both of them do not think twice before hurting people;s sentiments or offending them for in their mind they are doing what they think is “ the right thing” and this often leads to a series of misunderstandings. Their inflated sense of self-importance also comes with their fear of being alone, something which both of them can’t come to terms with. Walter effectively lets Jesse’s girlfriend Jane choke to death in front of him for he feels that's the best decision for Jesse, but what he never hold himself accountable for is his need for acquaintance and friendship that Jesse provides, and in a world where his family has already left him, Walter isn’t ready to let go of Jesse too. Something similar happens to Todd, coincidentally played by Aaron Paul as well, when BoJack willfully sabotages Todd’s chance at making a successful rock opera, for that would mean that Todd had to go away from him. Diane does bring up this fact to BoJack, but he is never able to accept it. BoJack’s sense of dark humour often makes people mistake him for a vile person and despite being a genuinely good person from heart has a whole lot of unresolved past issues that makes him destroy the possibility of any real friendship. BoJack, alienates himself from all and avoids  blaming himself for all the ill happenings in life and spends an irrational amount of time obsessing over his sworn enemy Mr. Peanut Butter (Saura & Raúl Sánchez, 2019[6] ).

BoJack’s character is layered with a lot of flaws and misgivings, that essentially shows him to be  a womanzing disrespectful disregardful person who can seldom think of something out of which he stands to get no gain. But BoJack  has a lot of unprocessed trauma and knows what an exhausting task it is to be a dependable good person in a world that thrives on your weakness and anxiety.Thus, throughout the series he wants other people to say that he is a “ Good Man” instead of really trying to be so.  He is misunderstood for the most of the series as a man with no regard for anything but his goal of establishing his superiority, but we do get to see his heroic and vulnerable side at times when he comes through for his friends, where we are made to feel that no person can be wholly good or bad (Saura & Raúl Sánchez, 2019).[7] 

BoJack is a cynical person who has an external locus of identity where he only values himself as much as others value him. This leads to him having a very distorted view of life where he constantly needs external assurance that they are a valuable person in their life. However, reciprocity isn’t something they are adept in.  What all the aforementioned anti-heroes have in common is that they cannot reciprocate the goodwill extended to them. They are emotionally handicapped and can seldom overcome their psychological scars to extend the hand of help and empathy to others. BoJack here is literally a “house” with layers and doors and rooms with secrets and unresolved trauma. Infact, all men are such houses, with rooms of goodness and despicability. But we are often quick to judge on outer appearances and it is only on close consideration that we see that there is a silver lining in every cloud. BoJack mistrusts everyone, and gives no one entry to his inner sanctum of thought. BoJack pretends to wear his heart on his sleeve, by openly insulting the people around him, but that’s a facade of sarcasm that he develops as a defense mechanism to avoid talking about their own feelings.BoJack is too self absorbed and narcissistic that he constantly criticizes and emotionally bullies the people around him by preying on their weaknesses. This is a classic anti-hero characteristic being a parasite in his emotional needs, suckling of the positivity of others and failing to realise how toxic he can become too.

Being a despicable person is hard, for no one wants to be judged as a malicious person by other people. This leads to a system of overcompensation where instead of making substantial changes and contributions to their own lives or other people’s lives, these characters tend to become a person who lacks a moral compass in his actions (Veit & Walter, 2018)[8] . We see BoJack’s overcompensation with his dealings with Sarah Lynn and the problematic way he deals with it through sexuality insteads of sentimentality. Walter too tries to use sexual intercourse as a way to avoid his feelings and compensate for his lack of moral compass, and Skyler bears the brunt of it until she cannot put up with it anymore.

Television comedy has given us several flawed characters as anti-heroes  whom we absolutely fall in love with, despite their irksome qualities. BoJack  may be rude and insolent, but the love he has for his near and dear ones and the feats that he goes through to keep them in his life, albeit in questionable ways, is nevertheless relatable to the core (Lahut & Jacob Alexander,2017). His care for Todd, Diane and even Princess Carolyn is an extension of his hidden persona where he is capable of being a genuinely good person, but lacks the moral and ethical foundation to be so. BoJack  has his own way of dealing with crises, all of which are not always ethical or moral. His behaviour and treatment of other people is questionable (Brayton & Sean, 2[9] 018). His baggage of insecurities makes it impossible to operate as a normal human being capable of compassion and  under the crumbling heap of insecurities often forgets that others have their own struggle too. His world view is cynical and skeptical, and often it turns out to be true. The screenwriting of the show shows it starkly without any sugar-coating, exposing the deep hypocrisy that lies within the society

Bojack Horseman is perhaps one of the greatest anti-heroes whose anthropomorphic existence is enough to represent his ennui (De Koster & Lander, 2018)[10] . He is alienated from his own world, and crumbling each day under his baggage of unresolved trauma, much like all of us. And he refuses to face it and stays in the jarring cumbersome reality that he has constructed for himself because it seems familiar to him. BoJack’s character deals with sexual tension, drug addiction, alcoholism and every other possible modern problem in existence that is entrapping humanity right now (Herson & Kellie, 201[11] 8). And instead of having a self-righteous approach to it, BoJack represents it in a humane way, making it relatable and revealing at the same time. BoJack’s character portrayal is perhaps an epiphany to many who have clung to nostalgia and past glory and have turned bitter in this process. But BoJack’s journey is just that of fighting through personal depression and social anxiety. His journey is that of trying to be a good human being in a world hostile to kindness and romance. BoJack agrees that life isn’t a feat of being an overly moral and ethical person for a day, it is a challenge of trying to be a dependable good human who has empathy left for others after being exhausted by dealing with his own insecurities. Alcoholism, sex addiction and drug addiction are often seen as antisocial acts which makes us discard such humans as social rejects. But often we fail to realise the unbearable reality of the existence of these people and how their addiction is just a feat to escape from reality. However, this endeavour of escape is not met with the contempt of escapism in the series  but as a necessary evil in today's era, where coping with one's insecurities becomes more problematic day by day (Wojtyna & Mi?osz, 20[12] 18).

 

 

 

 

 

 

Development of the anti-hero 1450 Aditi

An antihero can be portrayed as a protagonist or the main character of the story that lacks the qualities of a hero. A protagonist of a play or a story is always expected to be a hero, antihero breaks the standard here, sometimes they are a little villainous but there is a huge difference between an antihero and a villain too. Antiheroes do not always support the evil as the villain does. Antiheroes are characters that show many complex states and they are very popular. The word antihero can be broken as, ‘against’ which goes for ‘anti’ and ‘defender or protector’ which goes for the hero. The actions of antiheroes might be good morally which is done for their own good interest or to break the ethical codes. The actions of an antihero never depend on the ethical codes that attribute as a hero. Like the normal and regular people, antiheroes are flawed. The concept of antihero came as the thought of making someone the protagonist but not a hero or a villain came into the minds and the scripts. A lot of examples can be drawn as the concept of antihero comes into the mind.

The concept of an antihero was first developed in literature a long time back. At first Homer’s Thersites can be taken into consideration. The concept of antihero can also be seen in the classics of Greek drama. If Roman satires and Renaissance are taken into consideration then the ideas of antihero can be seen. Examples of these are Don Quixote and also the picaresque rogue. Romanticism in the 18th and the 19th century let the audience and a mass of people see that the concept of antihero can be accepted and popularized. Homer’s Iliad first presented the need for an antihero. In books 2 and 3, it is noticed that antihero characters are noticed from both the sides of the Greek and the Trojans. Thersites from the side of the Greek in Homer’s Iliad are an example of an antihero whereas Paris from the Trojan side is also an example of an antihero, but not as strong as Thersites. Both of the characters show not so heroic attributes towards the goal in the play. Thersites never fades away to laugh at any strong power and even the army. Paris shows the traits of anti-heroism. Achilles who was the main character in Homer’s Iliad also showed many traits for which he can be considered as an antihero. He is arrogant, vengeful, and extremely stubborn but does well for many characters unknowingly. Besides Iliad, we can see a few traits of anti-heroism in Odysseus. Eventually, the ideas of the antihero became a very famous and popular concept between the regular people and the audience. When antiheroes emerged, the age and the literary age faced a new revolution and a change. The expectations of a hero are very different from an antihero. There was a shift in the writing and thinking style, and also the heroic ethos.

Huckleberry Finn can be considered the first antihero, and has been called “the first antihero in the American nursery”. Huckleberry Finn can be called an antihero who got popularized and holds a great place in television history. As the general traits of an antihero, this person also saves people’s lives and helps them a lot but for his selfish reasons and excuses. He unknowingly helps the people where his first intention was only to satisfy his needs. Huckleberry Finn can be described as an antihero as we can see the graphs of his relationship with Jim. We can see in the story of Huckleberry Finn that he travels with another character called Jim and crosses the Mississippi River. There was a purpose behind Huckleberry Finn in traveling with Jim. He did not travel with Jim to help him; he had his selfish reasons behind doing so. He went all the way to help his own father escape, and also he took Jim along with him so that Jim can be his traveling companion and so that he can help in the traveling route. But we can see the place where Huckleberry Finn went to release his father; he also unintentionally helped Jim to free himself and his parents from the chains of slavery. Eventually, we can see Huckleberry Finn developing a soft spot for his travel companion Jim. He even lies at some point in the story to save Jim. Huckleberry Finn can be successfully defined as an antihero because not only he struggles with his decisions and does things which he is supposed to do for feeling good for himself, he also does help others unintentionally. It can also be seen that Huckleberry Finn can also distinguish right from wrong, which as an antihero makes him more approachable, realistic, and popular.

Antiheroes are very wanted in today’s pop culture. They are generally known as rebels in today’s generation. The concept of antiheroes has been the same but the audience, the representation, and the understanding of the situations have changed. Not only they have changed, but they have also upgraded and popularized in a different manner. In today’s pop culture they can be any subject, they can be detectives or can stay on either side of the law. The concept of antiheroes today tells us how versatile our needs are. People love antiheroes. They justify our deep desires and needs. People love to see antiheroes as they not only justify the flaws we have but also plays with our internal conflicts from time to time. There are many examples that can be drawn from today’s pop culture. Few common examples of famous antiheroes in today’s culture are Tyler Durden from the movie called “Fight Club”, the next example of antihero is Captain Jack Sparrow from “Pirates of the Caribbean”, the next example can be Arya Stark from “Game of Thrones”, and another example of antihero can be Michael Corleone from “The Godfather” and obviously we cannot forget Clint Eastwood from “The Man With No Name”. In comics, it can be seen that many comics are also influenced by anti-heroism. Examples are “The Punisher”, “Cat women”, “Suicide Squad”, “Wolverine” etc. Tyler Durden is a great example of an antihero from the movie called “Fight Club”. He is as such because he portrays the characteristics of antiheroes properly. He makes a great change but in a less heroic way. “The Godfather” is a very popular movie where Michael Corleone acts as an antihero. Corleone family plays the part of criminals who does bad things to people by which they gain things for their own. Michael Corleone performed by Al Pachino gets to every point of being an antihero and tries to save his family and its empire from getting destroyed. Another iconic performance that cannot be missed is by Clint Eastwood in “The Man With No Name”. A film comes with a cowboy theme and a great portrayal of the antiheroic character in the film. The character is out for revenge and does not look back. He kills the best and the worst killers to get revenge, the people love this character as it portrays our inner conflicts and eventually does justice to his own emotions. Arya Stark is another example of an antihero from a very popular series known as “Game of Thrones”. Arya Stark learns how to fight and kill and goes out for vengeance. The series has its own set of rules and laws. Arya Stark struggles a lot, and after getting a great skill set in fighting she goes out to kill everyone who hurt her family. She does not perform by her ethics but still, she is a popular character because she finishes the evil even if it is for her own revenge.

BoJack Horseman is an animated series that is found on Netflix. BoJack Horseman has a different but strong concept of anti-heroism in the show. BoJack Horseman is a fictional character. Each and every character that is written has its own line of characteristics and wishes. The show is very popular and also shows the character of anti-heroism as the show has feelings that expose human behavior, inner conflicts, and insecurities. The normal human feeling can be categorized into happiness, sorrow, pleasure, anger, insecurities, etc. The characters in the show have also shown the same. The show gets extremely popular because of this. The shows make hilarious comments but tell messages which are considered to be hidden but also understandable by the audience. In a nutshell, the relationship between the audience and the show is very strong and complicated. There are many instances in the life of the fictional character BoJack Horseman which makes the audience connect to him, and later the consequences or the outcomes shown tells how the characters of an antihero are presented in the show. It can be seen that in modern time examples for anti-heroism, BoJack Horseman’s show can be held as a good portrayal of an antihero character.

Perspective of the anti-hero 1000 Somreeta di

Anti Hero whether in literature or any part of a creative field like theatre, drama, TV shows, cinemas etc plays an important part in attracting the audiences (Janicke et al., 2018). Anti-heroes are described as the heroes who are different from the protagonist of the traditional literary work. The main characteristics of a hero remain with the vanity, morality, ethics, and logic. Anti-heroes are not considered as the antagonist of any piece of literature (Janicke et al., 2018). They are not alike the villains but lack the character of being a hero. They are whirled around some sort of tragedy through which their life course goes on (Eldridge, 2017). All the anti-heroes in the literature reflect some of the fiscal background through which they have crossed their life. Another important thing about anti-heroes is their characteristic behavior (Janicke et al., 2018). If it is noticed minutely it can be seen that all the anti-heroes conclude and stick to their principal. They are not concerned about the right and wrong perspective of the society (Eldridge, 2017). They only concentrate on the thing they believe upon. In this regard anti-heroes became different from the heroes of a story. One cannot compare directly anti-heroes with the antagonists (Janicke et al., 2018). In creating general views it is important to differentiate between a hero and an anti Hero (Eldridge, 2017). The rise and fall of anti Hero in all of the literature depends upon the background and the works of themselves.

From the perspective of an anti-hero we will fit the example of the most important and renowned character Bojack Horseman (Salmon, 2017). Recent series on Netflix has captured the mind of the audiences while depicting the character Bojack Horseman. The character reflects all the characteristics of an anti-hero. The story is built up around the character of this anti Hero (Salmon, 2017). It deals with the doing and the works done by the main character in the story. It creates an atmosphere of tragedy and a feel of sadness among the people. Bojack Horseman successfully became an anti Hero. If the background of this character is studied it can be sculptured as a most unfortunate living being who is unsatisfied with all he's doing and his works (Salmon, 2017). He has to grow up in an atmosphere of violence among his parents. His father being a writer is not equipped with a huge sum of money to run the family (Salmon, 2017). On the other hand his mother being an heiress is mostly unsatisfied with the attitude of his father. From a very small age he had learned how to live his own life and to create his line of thinking. The character is figured out in a figure of a horse in human attire. Slowly Bojack Horseman becomes an anti-hero who procures lots of negativity in his life. He starts to indulge in alcohol, pills, and all sorts of negatives in his life. Though he is aware of this situation he never became a threat to society. Being an anti Hero he never creates an atmosphere that can create a problem in his surroundings (Pabst, 2017). He is subdued in the problem of his life and is an unsatisfied person. From a very early age he didn’t have any type of care and love from his mother. As he grew up his feeling for the society became intricate but his lifestyle is not liked by the people of his surroundings. Bojack Horseman, the protagonist character in the series became an anti Hero (Pabst, 2017). His lifestyle and his thinking lead him towards destruction (Pabst, 2017). He is aware of his society and friends but he lacks the future perspective of his life. An anti Hero is not boosted with the good qualities and positive tactics to run his life. In the series Bojack Horseman it is evident that the leading character lacks the quality of being a positive creature. He is a sort of character who built himself in a sadistic nature and lives in the dark part. He fails to think about the good future. In the due course of the story it can be seen that the partner of Bojack Horseman leaves him for his character trait (Saura, 2019). She feels that it is impossible to be with him. Then Bojack Horseman suddenly ends up with some gritty roles which lead to his name and fame. This makes his mother and his friends proud. Suddenly he rose from his deep dark world and proved himself to be a talented actor (Saura, 2019). He was abusive and ill-behaved with his associates. From the beginning of his life he was unsecured and this insecurity leads him to ruin his life. This is a character trait that is similar to that of the anti-heroes. They always live in the dark but sometimes act into such height that they begin famous and mark his name among the society.

 

The anti-heroes in literature are created in two parts. The one who leads with non-conventional techniques. The other is reflected as the villain and at the same time the protagonist of the story (Saura, 2019). In Bojack Horseman the protagonist became the anti Hero. In the story it is also shown that the main character influences the other characters by his negative character trait. It is also a similar character of an anti Hero (De Koster, 2018). Bojack Horseman always used to create a mess in his life as every anti-heroes uses to possess. The character used to have all the negative traits in his life. His fundamental place of doing party leads him to a dark world (De Koster, 2018). The addiction in drugs, alcoholic character, lack of soberness all the negative roles are found in the character of Bojack Horseman. His character has resembled in such a manner that the anti-hero title is appropriate and fit for him (De Koster, 2018). The creator of this character has been success

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