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RESEARCH PROPOSAL: SKIN CANCER PREVENTION PROGRAMME

RESEARCH PROPOSAL: SKIN CANCER PREVENTION PROGRAMME

Abstract

This research proposal provides an outline according to which the overall research is accomplished. Research philosophy is the initial stage that delivers path for the complete study. In the present research, positivism research philosophy is utilized because it is best suited as per the necessity of quantitative research. Thereafter the research approach is fixed on the basis of chosen research philosophy. The deductive research tactic is chosen in this investigation because it supports to acquire exact facts and figures from large amount of data. The next step is concerning the research design which is confirmed according to the research philosophy and research design. Descriptive research design is chosen for the present research study. It will help to define the research with the help of reasons, concepts and methods. Primary data gathering process helps to fulfil the research goals. Novel data is crucial for this kind of study due to the absence of traditional study and the necessity of more reliable and dependable material. In this research, a sample survey is performed to gather the responses of adolescents. A questionnaire is prepared and circulated by electronic means to the individuals. The determination behind this research proposal is to inspect the attitudes and understanding of adolescent of a national skin cancer prevention program in New Zealand.

 

 

 

Study Aim

The aim of the study is to examine adolescent attitudes and understanding of a Sun Smart national skin cancer prevention program in New Zealand.

Literature review

As indicated by Peterson et al. (2019) non-melanoma skin cancer is greatly widespread in New Zealand. It makes skin cancer precedence for cancer prevention. The season of spring is significant for sun protection. Due to the UV radiations it becomes more hazardous. News plays a significant role in reminding individuals and focussing on sun protection.  A media observing company organized stories linked to cancer through spring 2016. These were revised for enclosure as per the cancer type. Conventional media reporting of skin cancer remains comparatively low during spring (Peterson, Richards, McNoe & Reeder, 2019).

According to Shih et al. (2017) the paper describes two issues which include the cost on public health and updated evaluation of economic identifications for the avoidance.  Prevalence?based cost method was used in the public hospitals. The cost was associated with inpatient admissions and the outpatients services was based on presence at three clinics in the year 2012-2013. Cost?efficiency for prevention was projected from ‘experiential v/s expected’ examination, including program expenditure data. The SunSmart program is projected to have prohibited more than 43,000 skin cancers amongst the year 1988 and 2010 (Shih, Carter, Heward & Sinclair, 2017).

Signal (2020) explained that numerous cancers care prevents but New Zealand has higher incidences in some kind of cancers. This research paper searches the condition of cancer avoidance in New Zealand. The paper examines the condition of avoidance on four parts which includes body weight and nutrition, alcohol, tobacco and sun safety. It can be concluded that although there is good proof, New Zealand tussles to provide effective avoidance. New Zealand is a pioneer of the world in controlling tobacco but is slow in this area. Such management has not happened in other parts. New Zealand requires brave governmental management for cancer avoidance, particularly to control the dominant alcohol, tobacco industries and junk food. It also requires equity dedicated interventions and important investment to attain the enormous potential for health improvement and equity that cancer avoidance interventions can provide (Signal et al. 2020).

Research design methodology and method

 

Research Philosophy

Research philosophy is a tactic in which the facts about an investigation should be composed, inspected and used. A research philosophy should be robust enough to lead the path of the research (Quinlan, Babin, Carr, & Griffin, 2019 ). A research philosophy is the foundation of the entire research and so, it must be suitable and consistent with the research. The research in this research methodology follows the Positivism research philosophy. This philosophy relies more on the quantitative examination.

Justification

Positivism philosophy is a research philosophy which considers that the factual information obtained through the senses. This philosophy explains only those phenomenon’s which are experienced. To complete the research in the present theme positivism theory is suitable. It will help in achieving the research aims. This philosophy will assist in deriving fruitful outcomes. This research consists of quantitative data therefore positivism is the appropriate theory (Velarde, Adams, Piaw & Sumintono, 2018). The research is carried out on the basis of a sample survey questionnaire of individuals. Positivism will assist in providing the reason behind all the examination and discoveries that will occur further in the research study.

Research Approach

A research approach can be demonstrated as the practise of data reasoning. The two types of research approach involve inductive research scheme and deductive research scheme. Quantitative facts utilize the deductive scheme while qualitative facts utilize the inductive scheme. A quantitative research describes organized examination of models by collecting measureable facts and executing arithmetical or calculative practices. In deductive method, general philosophies move up to particular inferences to provide efficient outcomes. There is a need to preserve reliability between the examination and approaches utilized (Brannen, 2017). The existing research wishes to use quantitative facts and thus the deductive research scheme proves to be the maximum proficient technique for the research.

Justification

Deductive methods are more typically related with the quantitative inspection. Concept and examination provides the precision and transparency of the research being carried out. In this deductive theory is appropriate since it assist in rational thinking. Deductive approach is mostly suitable for quantitative data because its conclusions are grounded on multiple matters that are considered as right.

Research Design

A research design is an outline of actions and strategies which are significant to link numerous research actions in a sensible way with the goal of functioning on the research subject efficiently. Thus, a research design contributes in creating the real investigation easier to comprehend. In this research examination, descriptive design is utilized for the data collection and inspection (Leavy, 2017). A research design is fabricated with the goal of accurate evaluation of the entire data and consequence for the independent and dependent things.

Justification

As per the name of this technique it is utilised to depict circumstances and activities. It does not choose the circumstances and rational relationship not does it make detailed predictions. It is the most rational research substructure for the examination of quantitative details as the characteristics of the facts can be observed sufficiently by using this technique. Morover, the facts utilised will be directly used since it is a primary. Also, the nature of the factors moreover does not get altered during the entire method which makes it suitable to consider a descriptive research design.

Data collection

This is an extremely important portion of any research. Numerous information is present on the web in the form of records. The aim is to derive valuable information from those databases. In this research primary data collection method will be acquired and data will be newly produced. This method is bit time consuming since additional efforts are applied. In a primary quantitative research survey is the best way to acquire data. So, a sample survey will support this study. Mainly sample surveys are of two kinds which involves closed-ended or open-ended. Around 100 adolescents will be selected as respondents in a random fashion. These adolescents are chosen from unique and distinct regions. A questionnaire will be prepared for the survey to yield fruitful information (Silverstein, Mugenzi, Lule & Costas-Chavarri, 2016). The questionnaire will be provided to the adolescents via electronic way. Electronic way assists in gaining proper understanding of the behaviour of the survey as well as to measure the statistics.

Research Instrument

Research instrument are utilized for the collection of data to conduct the study. Survey is carried out with the help of questionnaire to lead the research study. The questionnaire comprises of multiple choice questions. Therefore there can be no descriptive replies to the questions. There will be options for all the questions out of which one will be chosen as a reply. Research equipment’s are utilized by researchers to achieve their stated objectives when leading a research study. The research instrument must be identified on the basis of their suitability of the research. A research instrument is considered as good if it is consistent, legal and practical. In quantitative research tactic there are several research instruments out of which mostly tests and questionnaire are considered more. A questionnaire is a research tool containing of a sequence of questions with the aim of assembling useful statistics from the respondents (Bertolaso & Sterpetti, 2019). A questionnaire can be unstructured or it can be structured. Generally, the questionnaires are prepared to examine the replies mathematically. There is different type of questionnaires which includes telephonic questionnaire, computer questionnaire, mail questionnaire, open questionnaires etc. In the presented research a computer questionnaire is utilized which has multiple choice questions.

Sampling technique

It is required to collect the data samples for deriving essential information. If a data sample has huge data set then it will provide accurate results. The chief goal of the sampling procedure is to collect and examine the data archives in a way which makes it most attainable for the academician to do the research (Caianiello, 2018). The motivation behind sampling is to take quantified details from the entire populace. There are many methods of sampling out of which usually probability and non-probability sampling approaches are used. A random sampling method will be used in this research.

Data analysis

Appropriate data analysis supports establishments to obtain valuable information about corporate process. Generally, data mining skills and data modelling are utilized to analyse facts so that it can be presented in a rational manner. The authentic stage of data analysis covers assessment of raw data, accumulation of data, checking data, and handling a data record. Mostly utilized data examination systems are quantitative and qualitative methods. In the represented research, quantitative data inspection will be done. There are numerous tools which can be acquired for the data investigation which are prepared with correlation techniques, SPSS and regression formulas. In this research, SPSS tool is utilized since it is a quantitative research. For executing the numerical tasks SPSS analysis is extensively used by the scholars (Ellis et al. 2017). This equipment is very efficient in data management. Also it gives whole control to the scholar who is operating the tool SPSS. SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) is mostly utilized by the scholars to perform arithmetical examination.

Ensuring validity and reliability

Validity is regarded as an important aspect in research and it is considered in the initial phases of research. Mainly, it is considered while collecting the data. It is required to assure that the selected method and assessment techniques are of extraordinary quality and directed to assess what is required.

Graphs and tables to visualise findings

Questionnaire: The replies to the queries of the questionnaire will be given as:

  1. Strongly disagree
  2. Disagree
  3. Neutral
  4. Agree
  5. Strongly Agree

Research questions: The following are the research questions for the survey:

  1. Are best practices used in the prevention of skin cancer in New Zealand?
  2. Do adolescents have knowledge about the Sun Smart programme?
  3. Is enough information provided to the adolescents about Sun Smart national skin cancer prevention program in New Zealand?
  4. Is the Sun Smart program in New Zealand a success?
  5. Are adolescents aware about the Sun Smart programme in New Zealand?

Questionnaire

  1. Are best practices used in the prevention of skin cancer?

Table 1 Dummy table

Response

Counter

Percentage

  1. Strongly disagree

60

30

  1. Disagree

40

20

  1. Neutral

50

25

  1. Agree

30

15

  1. Strongly agree

20

10

  •  

200

100

Figure 1 Graphical representation for dummy table 1

  1. Do adolescents have knowledge about the Sun Smart programme?

Table 2 Dummy table

Response

Counter

Percentage

  1. Strongly disagree

70

35

  1. Disagree

30

15

  1. Neutral

30

15

  1. Agree

40

20

  1. Strongly agree

30

15

  •  

200

100

 

Figure 2 Graphical representation for dummy table 2

3. Is enough information provided to the adolescents about Sun Smart national skin cancer prevention program in New Zealand?

Table 3 Dummy table

Response

Counter

Percentage

  1. Strongly disagree

60

30

  1. Disagree

30

15

  1. Neutral

50

25

  1. Agree

40

20

  1. Strongly agree

20

10

  •  

200

100

 

Figure 3 Graphical representation for dummy table 3

4. Is the Sun Smart program in New Zealand a success?

Table 4 Dummy table

Response

Counter

Percentage

  1. Strongly disagree

50

25

  1. Disagree

30

15

  1. Neutral

50

25

  1. Agree

40

20

  1. Strongly agree

30

15

  •  

200

100

Figure 4 Graphical representation for dummy table 4

5. Are adolescents aware about the Sun Smart programme in New Zealand?

Table 5 Dummy table

Response

Counter

Percentage

  1. Strongly disagree

70

35

  1. Disagree

30

15

  1. Neutral

30

15

  1. Agree

30

15

  1. Strongly agree

40

20

  •  

200

100

 

Figure 5 Graphical representation for dummy table 5

The findings of the survey explain that there is a less awareness among the adolescents about the Sun Smart programme in New Zealand.

Significance

In New Zealand, every year there are around 45,000 skin cancer cases. It is observed that around 90 per cent skin cancer is developed by ultra violet rays. It does not depend on the gender since it affects both the gender equally. The chance of skin cancer is 40 per cent more in the summer season. The threat of skin cancer in adolescents is on the higher side since they spend time in the sun during the day. So, the adolescents are more affected. Therefore it is important to give knowledge to adolescents about skin cancer prevention (Puy, Tremblay, Gribonval & Vandergheynst, 2018). This will help to put some restrictions on the adolescents while playing in the sunlight with friends. It can also affect mental or physical health. The scholar is concerned in providing facts to avoid skin cancer. It also explains SunSmart program and how it assists in preventing skin cancer.

Ethical consideration

For carrying out any research it is important to consider the ethical consideration since it determines that whether the research is acceptable or non-acceptable. In a quantitative research the main ethical concerns are secrecy and confidentiality. If the morals are considered during the research there will be less faults and it will promote high standards. A research should also consider social beliefs. For getting funding for a research it needs to be trustable.

Timeframes

Gantt-Chart

Actions

Month 1(1to 4 week)

Month 2 (1to 2 week)

Month 2 (3 to 4 week)

Month 3(1 to 2 week)

Month 3 (3 to 4 week)

Study Aim

 

 

 

 

 

Literature review

 

 

 

 

 

Research design methodology and method

 

 

 

 

 

Graphs and tables to visualise finding, Significance

 

 

 

 

 

Ethical consideration and costing

 

 

 

 

 

Conclusion

 

 

 

 

 

 

This is the Gantt chart which is showing the schedule of the entire project. It presents the summary of the whole project timings.

Costing

The direct or indirect cost in a research is linked with the operational methods, production techniques and so the main research cost includes production overhead (Sharma, 2017). Nowadays researchers are funded by numerous institutions, agencies, foundations and government. Some researchers are funded by the private organizations which include the pharmaceutical company researches like one which supported a current study associating many drugs managed after heart failure.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Bertolaso, M., & Sterpetti, F. (2019). Evidence amalgamation, plausibility, and cancer research. Synthese196(8), 3279-3317.

Brannen, J. (Ed.). (2017). Mixing methods: Qualitative and quantitative research. United Kingdom: Routledge.

Caianiello, S. (2018). A Possible Role for Philosophy: Bridging the Conceptual Divide in Cancer Research,1(2).

Ellis, K. R., Schall, J., Baker, S., Black, K. Z., Cothern, C., Davis, K., ... & Hardy, C. (2017). Abstract A43: A System-Change and Community-Based Participatory Research Approach to Understanding the Role of Informal Social Networks During the Cancer Care Journey.

Leavy, P. (2017). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory research approaches. New York: Guilford Publications.

Peterson, E., Richards, R., McNoe, B., & Reeder, A. I. (2019). SunSmart news? Traditional media coverage of sun protection issues during springtime in New Zealand. Health Promotion Journal of Australia30(2), 272-275.

Puy, G., Tremblay, N., Gribonval, R., & Vandergheynst, P. (2018). Random sampling of bandlimited signals on graphs. Applied and Computational Harmonic Analysis44(2), 446-475.

Quinlan, C., Babin, B., Carr, J., & Griffin, M. (2019). Business research methods. South Western Cengage,1(2).

Sharma, G. (2017). Pros and cons of different sampling techniques. International journal of applied research3(7), 749-752.

Shih, S. T., Carter, R., Heward, S., & Sinclair, C. (2017). Skin cancer has a large impact on our public hospitals but prevention programs continue to demonstrate strong economic credentials. Australian and New Zealand journal of public health41(4), 371-376.

Signal, L. N., Edwards, R., Gage, R., Jackson, N., McKerchar, C., & Sarfati, D. (2020). The state of cancer prevention in Aotearoa New Zealand: Slow progress requires political leadership and investment for health and equity. Journal of Cancer Policy23, 100212.

Silverstein, A., Mugenzi, P., Lule, J., & Costas-Chavarri, A. (2016). Barriers to expansion of cancer research: data collection challenges at a single-institution in Rwanda. Journal of Cancer Policy7, 1-3.

Velarde, J., Adams, D., Piaw, C. Y., & Sumintono, B. (2018). Crafting a Successful Research Proposal to Graduate on Time. Instructional Leadership To The Fore: Research And Evidence1, 72.

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