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Strength-Based Approaches to Address a Health Issue

Strength-Based Approaches to Address a Health Issue

Introduction

There are many challenges Aboriginal people face in accessing public services. These include health care services, lack of transportation, inflexible treatment options, and health care policies. It contributed to a general reluctance to use services as the cultural needs of aboriginals are not taken care which gives a sense of alienation to the indigenous people. Weak health care provider coordination and shortage of Aboriginal health services workers exacerbate the problem. To address the issues, the health services need to build positive relationships with indigenous communities and expanding service capacity to respond more to the needs of Aboriginal people. This is long overdue to address successfully the inequality of health services between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians (Durey, 2016). The essay focuses on the strategy to enhance the provision of local health services to Aboriginal Australians through the use of a strength-based approach in managing Diabetes mellitus. Therefore, it is important to understand how health practitioners will optimize the beneficial impact of working skilfully at the interface within the health care experience (Wilson, 2016). An effective teamwork of the health care provider such as nurses and local indigenous people can work on patient safety to get the desired outcome in delivering health care. The development of a mutually respectful and supportive collaboration is in high need to address community health issues. This article highlights the ideas and concepts of teamwork, taking care of cultural beliefs of indigenous people, and a realistic approach for patient care.

Strength- Based Approach and Diabetes Mellitus

The evolution of health care services and good patient care requires a parallel development of health care providers with a focus on strength-based approach, patient-centred approach, to teamwork. This will help in providing the patients with exceptional care from the staff and also will strengthen their self-efficacy to take care of themselves. So, to overcome challenges, and reach the goals, the health care members should be supported by community strategies and practical skills.

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic diseases with the greatest physical, mental, and psychological demands. Performance in healthcare can be improved by adequate preparation, training and education, resource access, effective resource management, responsive visionary leadership, and health care provider coordination and partnership (Mosadeghrad, 2014). Therefore, the communities will have to take more responsibility in handling these problems of people living with chronic illnesses. Use patient-centred care, nurses and other healthcare professionals may provide help for a patient to develop self-management skills to deal with a chronic condition such as diabetes (Hughes, 2008).

The strength-based approach focuses on the self-determination and will power of a person. This style of approach draws on the strengths of the communities, making them primarily as resourceful and flexible in any adverse circumstances. A fascinating feature of the strategy focused on strengths is that it is about bringing people to affect change within them. Strength-based approach is so effective as it is the individual who influences the transition (). This approach relies heavily upon the individual's emotional cognitive process and information processing. The strength-based approach allows individuals to recognize their interests and combine their abilities to communicate in a thought process. It gives an insight of how the systems are set up in the strength-based approach, particularly when power can be out of balance between a program or service, and the people it is meant to serve ().

Self-Management skills

The nurses can help in self-management and building up of confidence in patients and their care-providers to maintain a good stable life for disease conditions like diabetes. Type 1 diabetes needs medication that lasts a lifetime once it progresses. The body is not producing enough insulin, and blood glucose levels remain high unless someone takes steps to manage it. So, the patient can be taught to manage the insulin levels by taking insulin through injection and can be administered themselves. Nurses can help the patients to improve their self-management skills by improving dietary habits, physical activity, etc (Kieft et al., 2014).

Enhancing the self-management capabilities include patient diet control, blood sugar levels, physical activity, and tracking of medications. Patient self-management can be taught through self-foot tests and control of other symptoms induced by diabetes such as chills, cough, exhaustion, and nausea. The care this way proceeds beyond the clinical setting, outside the hospital, and goes in the homes for the successful treatment. Through offering social support, consuming nutritious meals, monitoring levels of glucose, and motivating to take insulin and medications, the family can help prevent and regulate diabetes (Funnell & Anderson, 2004). The interaction with other members of the diabetes-affected community can promote self-management by helping in an open communication networks to address approaches and problems (Grady &  Gough, 2014).

Educating People About the Diabetes

Doctors typically offered medical care earlier but today nurses are primarily responsible for patient education. The nurses are helping them take responsibility for their safety and health. The goal is to lessen the complications caused by chronic diabetes. Patients can be made aware of the type 1 diabetes symptoms and ways of dealing with dizziness, sweating, chills, fatigue, hunger, and nausea. The nurses should be well aware of the technologies that can be utilized to teach. The educational resources can be customized and mailed to patients so that information related to patient care can be made accessible by clicking a button. That means the patient's individualized expectations will be fulfilled. The health care professional will be in a position to answer the patient's questions. There are other tools available in many languages (Wolters, 2017).

Self-efficacy

It is an individual 's conviction that he or she can handle their own health needs. Without self-efficacy it is difficult to develop problem-solving and self-management skills, especially when addressing health problems like diabetes. The self-efficacy combined with mental well-being would help in substantial improvement in self-management skills and reduce symptoms of diabetes. A diabetes person feels he's 'not good enough' and shows a sense of guilt and decides to quit his medication (Powers et al., 2016).

Addressing the Challenges

Nonetheless, a significant number of these unknown causes, which interfere with each other and influence the outcomes of diabetes, go unnoticed by health care professionals. The conditions are frustrating and saddening for diabetes patients that makes it very difficult for them to handle their health issues well. Such patients are called as "difficult patients" (Tareen & Tareen, 2017). In some cases, they are handled poorly for mental illnesses such as depression, or disorders of spectrum anxiety which the patient might not have (Asif, 2014). The diabetic patient experiences anxiety and it affects patient morale. They become depressed, angry, frustrated, confused, get guilt felling and often remorse, believing the disease controls their life. Diabetes therefore has many significant psychological consequences, which includes frustration, change of identity, and loss of feelings (Kalra, Jena & Yeravdekar, 2018). In such situations the nurses can help in guiding the patients and helping him to boost his morale.

Community Coalitions or Intersectoral Partnerships

For the advancement of public health, public coalitions or intersectoral alliances have been used and promoted. Using Bayesian structural equation modelling, it has been found that a higher level of partnership cooperation increases well-functioning relationship by enhancing their sense of identity and confidence that promotes wellbeing. Community responsibility opinion did not forecast future dedication to health promotion. This indicates that the control and sense of obligation of the group members, as well as empowerment, constitute constructive mechanisms of partnership (Cicognani et al., 2019).  Another model, Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child (WSCC) calls for cooperation in the society, education, and health sectors to address each child's needs and promote their full potential. It focuses on cooperation, leadership, and policy development. In a case study, 3 states and 2 local school of districts adopted elements of the WSCC model and they observed an increase in collaboration, integration, and alignment between health and education. The WSCC model was a success led to significant positive changes in environments of school health, practices, and policies (Chiang, Meagher, & Slade, 2015).

Another way is by increasing partnerships within the sport and health sectors to deliver creative community-based public health initiatives. This examines the role of sport and sport environments as a tool to achieve health results, as well as some of the practical and moral challenges posed by working together in sport and public health partnerships. It can demonstrate the wide variety of services already implemented, from across the spectrum of public health activities (Conrad, & White, 2016). To address the key elements needed for the effective creation of healthy relationships and integrated community-based health promotion research various approaches were studied. This involved engagement with the indigenous communities and their stakeholders, support from the community in terms of project development, and collaboration with other national and local organizations to improve the heath care settings (Estacio et al., 2017).

Studies shows that nurses are more focused in patient caring for the urban population than the indigenous communities, acknowledging the time constraints influenced their role in health promotion. Rural and remote nurses have a greater risk of getting fewer educational opportunities. This illustrate the need for further awareness and services to support community nurses in their comprehension of the principles of health care. This will help community nurses to  become more successful advocates of wellness and contribute specifically to medical change (Roden et al., 2016).

In countries like South Africa, all health workers shall use the guide to help, improve and enhance the practice of customer and community interaction processes across the country. The accompanying tools will assist staff who plan, manage or implement quality improvement projects, program activities for consumers and the community. The methods are based on existing customer toolkits and resource guides based on best practice methodology. The country recognizes the positive contributions that patients and the society make in enhancing the efficiency, equity, and management of health services. The value of designing health systems and public services focused on relationships with patients, families, carers, and customers is expressed in quality structures at national and international levels (Department for Health and Ageing, Government of South Australia., 2013). Hour-need is the science and practice of turning health studies into public policy and planning. Health researchers need to conduct policy-relevant work and consider the mechanisms of policymaking to affect community planning. Policy frameworks can assist researchers in tailoring research evidence and translation strategies to the context of policy and policymaking (Magee et al., 2014).

 

Conclusion

Health services have to building positive relationships with local indigenous communities in terms of providing excellent services to their capacity. So, that the health care needs of the aboriginal people can be fulfilled keeping in mind about their cultural views. The gap of health care disparity between the Aboriginal Australians and rest of the population can be narrowed down. The local health services to Australian Aboriginal people can be delivered through the use of a strength-based approach in the managing Diabetes mellitus. Hence, it is important to consider the health care context can maximize the beneficial effect of skilfully operating staff for the indigenous community. The strong partnership of health care provider's such as nurses and local aboriginal communities will collaborate on patient safety to achieve the desired health care result.

 

 

References

 

Asif, M. (2014). The prevention and control the type-2 diabetes by changing lifestyle and dietary pattern. Journal of  Education Health Promotion. 3, 1.

Blonde, L. (2005). Current challenges in diabetes management. Clinical Cornerstone. 7(3), S6-17.

Chiang, R., Meagher, W. & Slade, S. (2015). How the whole school, whole community, whole child model works: Creating greater alignment, integration and collaboration between health and education. Journal of School Health, 85(11): 775-84.

Cicognani, E., Albanesi, C., Valletta, L. & Prati, G. (2019). Quality of collaboration within health promotion partnerships: Impact on sense of community, empowerment, and perceived projects’ outcomes. Journal of Community Psychology, 48(2): 323-36

Conrad, D. & White, A. (2016). Sports-based health interventions - case studies from around the world. https://link-springer-com.ezproxy1.acu.edu.au/book/10.1007%2F978-1-4614-5996-5

Department for Health and Ageing, Government of South Australia. (2013). Guide for Engaging with Consumers and the Community 2013 https://www.sahealth.sa.gov.au/wps/wcm/connect/f8d1d0004e454788aa0caf8ba24f3db9/Guideline_Guide+for+Engaging+with+Consumers+and+Community_Oct2015.pdf?MOD=AJPERES&CACHEID=f8d1d0004e454788aa0caf8ba24f3db9

Durey, A., McEvoy, S., Swift-Otero, V., Taylor, K., Katzenellenbogen, J., & Bessarab, D. (2016). Improving healthcare for Aboriginal Australians through effective engagement between community and health services. BMC health services research16, 224. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-016-1497-0.

Estacio, E., Oliver, M., Downing, B., Kurth, J. & Protheroe, J. (2017). Effective Partnership in Community-Based Health Promotion: Lessons from the Health Literacy Partnership. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14(12).

Funnell M. M. & Anderson R. M. (2004). Empowerment and Self-Management of Diabetes. Clinical Diabetes. 22(3). 123-127.

Grady P. A.  &  Gough, L. L. (2014). Self-Management: A Comprehensive Approach to Management of Chronic Conditions. American Journal Public Health. 104(8), e25–e31.

Hughes, R. G. (2008). Patient Safety and Quality: An Evidence-Based Handbook for Nurses. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Kalra, S., Jena, B. N., & Yeravdekar, R. (2018). Emotional and Psychological Needs of People with Diabetes. Indian journal of endocrinology and metabolism22(5), 696–704.

 Kieft, R. A. M. M.,  Brouwer, B.,  Francke,  A. L. & Delnoij, D. M. J.  (2014). How nurses and their work environment affect patient experiences of the quality of care: A qualitative study. BMC Health Serv Res.  14: 249.

Magee, W., Maltsberger, B., Johnson, L. & Adams, J. (2014). Collaboration: finding the place for Cooperative Extension in the intersection of community development and health promotion. Community Development, 45(1): 90-102.

 Mosadeghrad, A. M.  (2014). Factors influencing healthcare service quality. International Journal Health Policy Management. 3(2), 77–89.

Powers, M. A., Bardsley, J., Cypress, M., Duker, P., Funnell, M. M., Fischl, A. H., Maryniuk, M. D., Siminerio, L., & Vivian, E. (2016). Diabetes Self-management Education and Support in Type 2 Diabetes: A Joint Position Statement of the American Diabetes Association, the American Association of Diabetes Educators, and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Clinical diabetes : a publication of the American Diabetes Association34(2), 70–80.

Roden, J., Jarvis, L., Campbell-Crofts, S. & Whitehead, D. (2016). Australian rural, remote and urban community nurses’ health promotion role and function. Health Promotion International, 31(3): 704-14.

Tareen, R. S., & Tareen, K. (2017). Psychosocial aspects of diabetes management: dilemma of diabetes distress. Translational pediatrics6(4), 383–396.

Wilson, A. M., Kelly, J., Magarey, A., Jones, M., & Mackean, T. (2016). Working at the interface in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health: focussing on the individual health professional and their organisation as a means to address health equity. International journal for equity in health15(1), 187. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12939-016-0476-8

Wolters Kluwer. (2017). 5 Strategies for Providing Effective Patient Education. Retrieved from http://lippincottsolutions.lww.com/blog.entry.html/2017/08/22/5_strategies_forpro-kDDq.html

 

 

 

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